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Chapter 25 Understanding Mobile Devices (220-902)
Terms in this set (41)
Apple's mobile OS, iOS, runs on the iPhone, iPad, and iPod Touch. The Apple model of development is very monolithic: Apple tightly controls the development of the hardware, OS, developer tools, and app deployment.
Android devices can be considered almost the opposite of Apple. Android is an open source platform, based on yet another open platform, Linux, and is owned by Google. Open source means device manufacturers can alter or customize Android as they see fit, so there are many differences among the implementations from various vendors.
Microsoft Windows Phone
In the pre-iPhone era, Microsoft's Windows Mobile OS powered millions of PDAs, tablets, and smartphones for both the consumer and enterprise markets. After the introduction of the iPhone, however, Microsoft failed to adopt the multi-touch UI, allowing iOS and Android to eclipse Windows Mobile in the market. Google's giving away Android didn't help Microsoft either.
Microsoft finally delivered a modern multi-touch OS with Windows Phone 7 in 2010, and its unique interface became the foundation of the tile-based interface introduced in Windows 8.
Mobile OS Features
Mobile operating systems come in a variety of flavors and sometimes have different features as well as different interfaces. But they also have a great deal in common, because consumers expect them to perform some of the same functions that they are used to seeing in other mobile devices, regardless of operating system.
All mobile OSes use a purely graphical user interface (GUI), meaning you interact with them by accessing icons on the screen. Current models do not offer any command-line interface.
Each OS usually has either a major button or a row of icons that enables the user to navigate most features of the device.
Most mobile devices include an accelerometer and a gyroscope, one to measure movement in space and the other to maintain proper orientation of up and down. The mobile OSes use these hardware features to change the screen orientation in many apps. You can flip an iPhone form vertical to horizontal, for example, to enhance watching videos on YouTube.
While every mobile device that calls itself a phone must have support for cellular wireless, another feature that many mobile devices include in Wi-Fi calling. the capability to make both audio and video calls over a Wi-Fi network. This enables devices that do not have cellular capabilities, like tablets, to talk on the phone and use video, as long as they have a good Wi-Fi connection.
Virtual assistants offer quick, vocal interaction to accomplish common goals. For example, you can ask Siri to find the nearest restaurant if you would like.
Software Development Kits
Most mobile operating systems come with some sort of software development kit (SDK) or application development kit that you can use to create custom apps or add features to existing apps on the device.
Each mobile OS offers different challenges for app developers. Apple's rigid development model makes it such that your app must pass a rigorous testing program before it is allowed into the App Store.
The Android application package (APK) is the installation developed after compiling an app's code, which can be written in a variety of languages.
One feature almost all currently marketed smartphones have built in is the emergency notification feature that enables them to receive broadcasts from national emergency broadcast systems, such as the Emergency Alert System (EAS) in the United States. This can be useful for situations like severe weather or amber alerts
Mobile Payment Service
In some cases, you don't even have to use an app, and many Near Field Communication (NFC) applications have been implemented by merchants in order to simply receive payment approval form the phone by placing the phone onto or near the special pad at the register.
Additionally, smartphone manufacturers have also started to produce their own payment systems. Apple, for example, has recently come out with a payment system, called Apple Pay. Apple Pay was was first implemented with the iPhone6, and support is even with the Apple Watch.
Airplane mode is simply a switch, either in the hardware or configuration settings located in the device's configuration settings. This turns off all cellular and wireless services, including Bluetooth, from the device. It ensures that no signal can be transmitted or received.
Web Browsing and E-mail
Every multifunctional mobile device, think smartphone and tablet, enables to do standard Internet-computing tasks. You can surf the Web using Wi-Fi connections or cellular, for example, and access just about any type of e-mail. The Web access differs according to the device you use. iOS devices, for example, all feature the Safari Web browser. Android uses Google Chrome. Windows Phone uses Edge.
Mobile devices use a variety of radio technologies to access the Internet. The two most common are: 802.11 and Bluetooth
PRL, PRI, and Baseband Updates
As mobile devices travel, they frequently have to pass through areas that don't have strong signals, or into areas that the carrier does not service.
When a mobile device connects to different carriers' networks, this is called roaming, and in some cases can incur service charges, depending upon the carriers in question. The Preferred Roaming List (PRL) is occasionally and automatically updated to your phone's firmware by the carrier so that your phone will be configured with particular carriers' networks and frequencies, in a priority order, that it should search for when it can't locate its home carrier network.
Updates to this list are sent via your phone's cellular connection (called baseband updates, or over-the-air updates) or, in some cases, through firmware updates during normal operating system and firmware upgrades via synchronization. PRI updates are intended to control the data rates between the mobile device and the cell tower, and are sent to ensure that the mobile device can send data at the rate the carrier network can receive it.
IMEI, ICCID, and IMSI
There are three identifiers you will need to understand for the exam and real-life management of mobile devices.
The International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI) number is a 15-digit number used to uniquely identify a mobile device, typically a smartphone or other device that connects to a cellular network. IMEI numbers are unique to the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) family of devices, including current devices that descended from GSM technologies (4G LTE and LTE-Advanced). You can find the number printed on the inside of the device or inside the OS configuration settings. IMEI can be used to identify a specific device and even to block that device from accessing the carrier's network. So if the device is lost or stolen the customer can notify the carrier and the carrier and block the phone from being used on their network.
The ICCID number, Integrated Circuit Card Identifier, uniquely identifies a subscriber identity module (SIM). The SIM contains information unique to the subscriber (owner of the phone), and is used to authenticate the subscriber to the network. SIMs can be move from phone to phone, usually with no problems.
The third number is the International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) number. It is also included on the SIM, it represents the actual user associated with the SIM. This number is normally not available on the phone and you usually have to get it from your carrier, to ensure that stolen phones are not misused. The IMSI number can be used to unlock a phone as well.
Simple: The IMEI number represents the device. The IMSI number is tied to the user's account with the carrier, and is included with the SIM.
As you should know, VPNs establish secure connections between a remote client and the corporate infrastructure, or between two different sites, such as a branch office and the corporate office. VPNs are typically implemented using tunneling methods through an unsecure network.
VPNs work on mobile devices basically the same way as a PC. The configuration GUI is maybe a little different but in general it is the same thing.
A mobile device is like a PC or a laptop, they have the same basic components, just smaller. Mobile device have a thing called system on a chip (SoC). This is just a CPU, GPU, and other logic components on a single die, saving a lot of space and power in the process.
A thing about these CPUs is that they are rarely Intel x86 based (32 bit); instead you are much more likely to run across an ARM architecture chip. (http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/ARM-processor)
Mobile devices do not use the standard HDD, instead they use SSD because it is faster, smaller, and uses less power.
Mobile devices are different than PCs because they offer no FRUs (Field Replaceable Unit). If something breaks you have to visit the manufacturer's supported retail outlet or send it back for repairs. You also cannot upgrade mobile devices at all. No RAM or hard drive upgrades. If you want something better you have to buy a new one.
Apple Expansion Options
Apple device offer the least expansion capability of all the mobile devices, so even though they dominate the marketplace, there is not much to say about them. Most of the Apple devices is limited to proprietary cables and devices. The iPad and iPhone use proprietary cables to and ports to recharge their device.
Android Expansion Options
Devices that use Google Android come with a variety of connections and expansion capabilities. Many offer MicroSD slots for adding storage in the form of the tiny flash memory cards. Android phones also have micro or full sized USB charging ports
The last way that mobile devices expand their physical capabilities is wirelessly, most often using the Bluetooth standard for adding a keyboard (all) or mouse (not with Apple products).
Fairly simple, find the devices app store and search for the app you desire. The app may or may not be free, depending on the developer.
Apple and Closed Source
Apple tightly controls the user experience, insisting that all developers of apps for iOS follow the same guidelines. Apple maintains strict control over what can and can't be installed on iOS devices meaning that if you want to get an app for your iPad or iPhone you have to download it via the Apple App Store. Apple also has the right to refuse apps if they do not meet the criteria to be on the app store. This controlled environment is called a closed source or vendor specific system.
To download or purchase apps you need to set up an account with the app store.
Google Android powers many smartphones and a solid percentage of tablets, but Android differs greatly from Apple iOS in that Google gives that OS away and developers create versions suited to their devices.
Windows apps closely mirror Apple apps in terms of Microsoft's close development and control of apps. While anyone can write apps for Windows Phone, it must be accepted by the Windows Phone Store if the developer wants to distribute it publicly.
Mobile devices connect to the outside world through the cellular networks or through various 802.11 Wi-Fi standards.
When you want to connect to a Wi-Fi network, you need to turn on your Wi-Fi and it will prompt you to pick the network to connect to. Enter the username and password or just connect if it is an open network and you are done. After you connect to a network successfully, all mobile devices store that network access information automatically, creating a profile of that network based on the SSID.
Many mobile devices use cellular services to connect to the Internet. This way you can use you smartphone, tablet, or other mobile devices to check your email or surf the web pretty much anywhere.
By default, mobile devices that use cellular networks for Internet connectivity use data roaming, meaning they will jump from cell tower to cell tower and from your provider to another provider without obvious notice. This is no big deal when you travel within your own country where competing providers have inexpensive roaming agreements.
Watch out for data roaming outside of your country. If you travel outside the country, your mobile device will connect to other cell providers which will make your bill skyrocket.
If you don't need to connect when out of country turn data roaming off.
Every mobile device comes with an e-mail service set up specifically from the mobile OS developer as a starter. iOS, Android, and Windows Phone offer e-mail services from Apple, Google, and Microsoft. iOS devices use iCloud, Android devices a Gmail account, and Windows uses Outlook.
The 902 exam describes this email integration as: integrated commercial provider email configuration.
Mobile device also allow you to enable you to set up standard corporate and ISP e-mail configurations as well. This is usually done in the settings and is not difficult to find.
To setup a POP3 or IMAP4 email account there will be different set up depending on OS, they are all similar though.
-POP 3: TCP 110
-IMAP4: TCP 143
-SMTP: TCP 25
Secure versions of listed protocols:
-Secure POP3: TCP 995
-Secure IMAP4: TCP 993
-Secure SMTP: TCP 465 or 587
You may also have to configure other settings, such as Secure/Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension (S/MIME) which are used to configure digital signature settings for e-mail, and contacts from the corporate address book, depending on how the corporate e-mail server is set up.
Smartphones and tablets can synchronize, or sync, with local machines or over the Internet with cloud-based servers to keep files and data up-to-date. These files and data include personal documents, Internet bookmarks, calendar appointments, social media data, eBooks, and even location data.
iOS devices use Apple iTunes software to play media and purchase from the iTunes Store, and also to sync iPhones, iPads, and iPods.
Android and Windows devices also have an app store, similar to the iTunes Store, that can sync certain configuration settings, apps, software upgrades, and so on.
Exchange ActiveSync (EAS) is a Microsoft protocol used to synchronize Microsoft Exchange e-mail, contacts, and calendars that has become widely used across a range of mobile OS platforms and hardware vendors, including Apple and Android devices.
Each phone vendor has its own version of cloud technologies that you can tie to your user account and use to store your personal data from your mobile device. Apple has iCloud, Microsoft has OneDrive, and Google has its own user cloud services, as do some of the individual manufacturers that make Android devices. There are also independent cloud providers that enable you to store your personal data, even share it with others.
Synchronizing data to your personal computer has both advantages and disadvantages:
-Full control of storing and protecting your own data, encrypted anyway you choose, and can also move it to portable storage in case you need a backup of it later.
-You must be connected to that computer or within a wireless range of it, if you sync wirelessly. That means you can't be on vacation and sync to your home PC.
You can also sync to the cloud but they have their advantages and disadvantages as well.
-If you have good cellular or wireless signal, you can sync from anywhere.
-Data could be intercepted over unsecured networks
-You are at risk of the provider's security and have no full control.
-Some cloud providers may limit the amount you are allowed to store in their cloud.
The most common synchronization issue is incomplete sync of data due to connectivity issues, device issues, or even remote infrastructure issues. Sometimes synchronization issues can cause an incomplete downloading of all e-mail or even duplicate e-mail. The problem can usually be resolved by moving the device to an area with a stronger signal.
There are other issues that can prevent synchronization. These can be a wide range of problems, including authentication issues, OS version issues, or incorrect configuration settings. If a device won't sync after getting it to a stronger signal, these are some things you should examine.
Another problem may be the remote end of the connection. This may be the enterprise e-mail server, or even the entry point into the enterprise network. Failure to properly authenticate or meet the requirements of the entry device may prevent a device from synchronizing.
One other issue you may want to examine when you have synchronization issues is that in some cases synchronization can occur from multiple sources. A device can synchronize from and enterprise app store, for example, as well as the vendor app store; personal e-mail services, such as Gmail and Yahoo! Mail; and even from third party providers of <service name here> and cloud storage. So with this you might have to look into the configuration settings because they may conflict.
iTunes and iCloud
Apple iPhones and iPads sync through Apple iTunes installed on a Mac or a PC. Everything, such as music, videos, contacts, pictures, e-mail, programs, and so on, can be stored locally. You can choose to backup all the apps on your iPhone or iPad to iTunes as well. This makes it really simple to recover your data if it is lost or if you replace your iPhone.
With iCloud, you can have all your iPhone or iPad data backed up online and thus accessible from anywhere.
Any Mac can download iTunes, but there is criteria for Windows. Check it out here: www.apple.com/support/itunes/getstarted/
Android and Gmail
Android-based mobile devices don't have a central desktop application similar to iTunes for Apple devices. Rather, they sync over the Internet, but only some data. Contacts, calendars, and e-mail (through Gmail) are all that sync by default. For every other type of data or media, you treat the Android like a thumb drive, you drag and drop files into the appropriate folder on the smartphone or tablet.
Near Field Communication (NFC) uses chips embedded in mobile devices that create electromagnetic fields when these devices are close to each other. The range is pretty small as it is from a few centimeters to only a few inches. The devices must be very close or touching each other, and can be used for data exchange for info such as contact info, small files, and even payment transactions through stored credit cards using systems like Apple Pay and Android Pay.
Unless your device is manufactured by Apple, it will very likely use a Micro or mini USB port to charge. These are the standard on most Android and Windows phone devices. This is great cause it is easier to find a new cable if they break and are inexpensive, compared to lightning cables.
With the iPhone 5, Apple introduced its current proprietary connector, known as the lightning connector. It replaced the old 30 pin connectors that Apple used on previous iPhones and iPads. The Lightning connector is an 8-pin connector, and is not keyed. These cables are more expensive than USB cables.
Apple also places chips inside of the lightning connectors to prevent non-licensed manufacturers from making fake ones.
USB Type-C is the newest iteration of USB connectors, and is not yet common found on too many devices, but you can expect to see them more frequently in the near future. USB Type-C is not keyed.
In fact, Apple has hinted strongly that they might use this cable in the future to replace the lightning connector. USB Type-C support technology up to USB 3.1 ,10Gbps, making it very fast for data transfer.
Pairing a Bluetooth device with a mobile device follows a similar, simple pattern through the Settings icon. You turn on Bluetooth on the smartphone or tablet, then power on the Bluetooth device. Return to the mobile device to select to pair with the Bluetooth device, and then enter the appropriate personal identification number (PIN) code. Once you type in PIN code, the device connect.
Pretty much replaced by Bluetooth and 802.11 Wi-Fi standard. Infrared was used between mobile devices, such as laptops and same older PDAs, to transfer data between them.
Infrared uses the wireless Infrared Data Association (IrDA) standard, and at one time was widely used to connect devices such as wireless remotes, printers, wireless mice, digitizers, and other serial devices. Infrared is line of sight, so if anything is between them it will break the connection.
Infrared = slow data transfer, short range
Hotspots and Tethering
A mobile hotspot is typically a small device that has access to cellular technologies such as 3G, 4G, and 4G LTE, and provides access to these networks for Wi-Fi devices.
These devices can provide wireless access for up to five to ten devices at a time. They are basically wireless routers that route traffic between Wi-Fi devices and broadband technologies.
When a phone does this it is called tethering. A popular name for these portable hotspots, as well as devices like cellular phones that also provide hotspot service, is MiFi, which stands for My Wi-Fi.
To connect a device to a hotspot, you turn on the hot spot and then go to the other device and connect to it using the right credentials.
It is not unusual to find Bluetooth headsets and external speakers for users to listen to music and chat with their friends. Game pads, including controllers and other accessories can also plug into tablets via a USB port or connect via Bluetooth.
Microsoft and Android also offer external storage in the form of mini or micro-USB memory cards.
You can also have battery packs that charge your devices on the go and have battery packs in the form of cases.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Chapter 24 Portable Computing (220-902)
Chapter 22 Wireless Networking (220-902)
Chapter 13 Windows Under the Hood (220-902)
Chapter 23 The Internet (220-902)
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