international communications test

Terms in this set (50)

The Bennett scale, also called the Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity (DMIS), was developed by Dr. Milton Bennett. The framework describes the different ways in which people can react to cultural differences

Denial of Difference Individuals experience their own culture as the only "real" one. Other cultures are either not noticed at all or are understood in an undifferentiated, simplistic manner. People at this position are generally uninterested in cultural difference, but when confronted with difference their seemingly benign acceptance may change to aggressive attempts to avoid or eliminate it. Most of the time, this is a result of physical or social isolation, where the person's views are never challenged and are at the center of their reality.

2.Defense against Difference One's own culture is experienced as the most "evolved" or best way to live. This position is characterized by dualistic us/them thinking and frequently accompanied by overt negative stereotyping. They will openly belittle the differences among their culture and another, denigrating race, gender or any other indicator of difference. People at this position are more openly threatened by cultural difference and more likely to be acting aggressively against it. A variation at this position is seen in reversal where one's own culture is devalued and another culture is romanticized as superior.[1]

3.Minimization of Difference The experience of similarity outweighs the experience of difference. People recognize superficial cultural differences in food, customs, etc.,. but they emphasize human similarity in physical structure, psychological needs, and/or assumed adherence to universal values. People at this position are likely to assume that they are no longer ethnocentric, and they tend to overestimate their tolerance while underestimating the effect (e.g. "privilege") of their own culture. In other words, as explained by the Canadian Center for Intercultural Learning, "people who adopt this point of view generally approach intercultural situations with the assurance that a simple awareness of the fundamental patterns of human interaction will be sufficient to assure the success of the communication. Such a viewpoint is ethnocentric because it presupposes that the fundamental categories of behavior are absolute and that these categories are in fact our own."

4.Acceptance of Difference One's own culture is experienced as one of a number of equally complex worldviews. People at this position accept the existence of culturally different ways of organizing human existence, although they do not necessarily like or agree with every way. They can identify how culture affects a wide range of human experience and they have a framework for organizing observations of cultural difference. We recognize people from this stage through their eager questioning of others. This reflects a real desire to be informed, and not to confirm prejudices. The key words of this stage are "getting to know" or "learning."

5.Adaptation to Difference Individuals are able to expand their own worldviews to accurately understand other cultures and behave in a variety of culturally appropriate ways. Effective use of empathy, or frame of reference shifting, to understand and be understood across cultural boundaries. It is the ability to act properly outside of one's own culture. At this stage, one is able to "walk the talk."

6.Integration of Difference One's experience of self is expanded to include the movement in and out of different cultural worldviews. People at this position have a definition of self that is "marginal" (not central) to any particular culture, allowing this individual to shift rather smoothly from one cultural worldview to another
High context
-Relationships depend on trust, build up slowly, are stable. One distinguishes between people inside and people outside one's circle.
-How things get done depends on relationships with people and attention to group process.
-One's identity is rooted in groups (family, culture, work).
-Social structure and authority are centralized; responsibility is at the top. Person at top works for the good of the group.
Interaction-High use of nonverbal elements; voice tone, facial expression, gestures, and eye movement carry significant parts of conversation.
•Verbal message is implicit; context (situation, people, nonverbal elements) is more important than words.
•Verbal message is indirect; one talks around the point and embellishes it.
•Communication is seen as an art form—a way of engaging someone.
• Disagreement is personalized. One is sensitive to conflict expressed in another's nonverbal communication. Conflict either must be solved before work can progress or must be avoided because it is personally threatening

Territoriality •Space is communal; people stand close to each other, share the same space
Temporality • Everything has its own time. Time is not easily scheduled; needs of people may interfere with keeping to a set time. What is important is that activity gets done.
• Change is slow. Things are rooted in the past, slow to change, and stable.
• Time is a process; it belongs to others and to nature.
•Knowledge is embedded in the situation; things are connected, synthesized, and global. Multiple sources of information are used. Thinking is deductive, proceeds from general to specific.
•Learning occurs by first observing others as they model or demonstrate and then practicing.
•Groups are preferred for learning and problem solving.
•Accuracy is valued. How well something is learned is important

Association •Relationships begin and end quickly. Many people can be inside one's circle; circle's boundary is not clear.
•Things get done by following procedures and paying attention to the goal.
•One's identity is rooted in oneself and one's accomplishments.
•Social structure is decentralized; responsibility goes further down (is not concentrated at the top).

Interaction •Low use of nonverbal elements. Message is carried more by words than by nonverbal means.
•Verbal message is explicit. Context is less important than words.
•Verbal message is direct; one spells things out exactly.
•Communication is seen as a way of exchanging information, ideas, and opinions.
• Disagreement is depersonalized. One withdraws from conflict with another and gets on with the task. Focus is on rational solutions, not personal ones. One can be explicit about another's bothersome behavior.

Territoriality •Space is compartmentalized and privately owned; privacy is important, so people are farther apart.

Temporality •Things are scheduled to be done at particular times, one thing at a time. What is important is that activity is done efficiently.
•Change is fast. One can make change and see immediate results.
•Time is a commodity to be spent or saved. One's time is one's own

Learning •Reality is fragmented and compartmentalized. One source of information is used to develop knowledge. Thinking is inductive, proceeds from specific to general. Focus is on detail.
•Learning occurs by following explicit directions and explanations of others.
•An individual orientation is preferred for learning and problem solving.
•Speed is valued. How efficiently something is learned is important