international communications test
Terms in this set (50)
is a term closely associated with Canadian-born Marshall McLuhan, popularized in his books The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of Typographic Man (1962) and Understanding Media (1964). McLuhan described how the globe has been contracted into a village by electric technology and the instantaneous movement of information from every quarter to every point at the same time.
is judging another culture solely by the values and standards of one's own culture. [page needed] Ethnocentric individuals judge other groups relative to their own ethnic group or culture, especially with concern for language, behavior, customs, and religion
a person's principles or standards of behavior; one's judgment of what is important in life.
"they internalize their parents' rules and values"
synonyms: principles, ethics, moral code, morals, standards, code of behavior
"society's values are passed on to us as children"
a settled way of thinking or feeling about someone or something, typically one that is reflected in a person's behavior.
"she took a tough attitude toward other people's indulgences"
synonyms: view, viewpoint, outlook, perspective, stance, standpoint, position, inclination, temper, orientation, approach, reaction; More
opinion, ideas, convictions, feelings, thinking
"you seem ambivalent in your attitude"
something believed; an opinion or conviction: a belief that the earth is flat. 2. confidence in the truth or existence of something not immediately susceptible to rigorous proof: a statement unworthy of belief.
the feeling of disorientation experienced by someone who is suddenly subjected to an unfamiliar culture, way of life, or set of attitudes.
reverse culture shock
The shock suffered by some people when they return home after a number of years overseas. This can result in unexpected difficulty in readjusting to the culture and values of the home country, now that the previously familiar has become unfamiliar.
preconceived opinion that is not based on reason or actual experience.
"English prejudice against foreigners"
synonyms: preconceived idea, preconception, prejudgment
prejudice in favor of or against one thing, person, or group compared with another, usually in a way considered to be unfair.
"there was evidence of bias against foreign applicants"
synonyms: prejudice, partiality, partisanship, favoritism, unfairness, one-sidedness; More
bigotry, intolerance, discrimination, leaning, tendency, inclination, predilection, casteism
cause to feel or show inclination or prejudice for or against someone or something.
"readers said the paper was biased toward the conservatives"
synonyms: prejudice, influence, color, sway, weight, predispose
the unjust or prejudicial treatment of different categories of people or things, especially on the grounds of race, age, or sex.
"victims of racial discrimination"
synonyms: prejudice, bias, bigotry, intolerance, narrow-mindedness, unfairness, inequity, favoritism, one-sidedness, partisanship; More
sexism, chauvinism, misogyny, racism, racialism, anti-Semitism, heterosexism, ageism, classism, casteism;
A measure of a person's capacity to function effectively in a multi-cultural environment. Employers and organizations apply CQ as a way to foster tolerance and enhance cross-cultural interactions.
Loan Words in Languages (p. 49): Can you think of words in English that are not originally English?
Schadenfreude--[German] The pleasure one takes from someone else's misfortune.
Modus Operandi--[Latin] Someone's habits or method of operating (often used by police investigators to describe someone's criminal profile, or MO)
Faux pas--[French] The violation of a commonly accepted social rule, a blunder like a gaffe.
Doppelgänger--[German] A double, or look-alike person, often with negative connotations since some people believe that seeing your own doppelgänger is an omen of impending death.
Prima donna--[Italian] Literally, 'first lady' as in the principal female singer in an opera, but usually used to refer to a spoiled, ill-tempered person.
Quid pro quo--[Latin] Literally, 'something for something'. Often used in place of 'you scratch my back and I'll scratch yours' or during negotiations to ask, 'what's in it for me?'.
Alter ego--[Latin] An 'other self'. Used to describe the other personality of a person who leads a double life.
What are reasons for learning a foreign language?
Impress people around you
Improve your decision making skills
Increase your brain power
Completely transform your travel experience
Improve your employability
Study or live overseas
Become more open-minded
Discover a new culture
Meet new people and develop life-long friendships
Unlocking the door to the rest of the world.
To increase global understanding
What constitutes good face-to-face communication?
A Personal Touch
Assertive and Accurate Expression
communication is the transfer of
language is llargeely symbolic, because
we arbitraly assign sybols to words and expect everyone to share the same meaning
distraction in communication can be physiological noise or psychological noise
is physicological- back pain- loud noise outside
psychological- emotional or mental distractions
behaviors are clustered. describe verbal and non-verbal elements
sound clusters- make words- the word its self is arbituray
what are vovalics
how you speak- pitch. tone. rate. volume. -not universal
explain the difference between symbols, signals, and signs
symbols- a device purpose created for not verbal and verbal meaning.
signals- narrower functions agreed upon. stop
signs- not created by humans could be more than one meanings.
language as a reflection of world view. words that aren't from here
via, de ja vu, macho, siesta, carpe diem
cultural dimensions- high and low context culture
pg 58. high context is situation and surroundings. low context culture uses more words.
silence. do Americans value silence
it depends but may be afaid of silence
presentations. how do you have to prepare a presentations for an american audience versus an Arabic-speaking audience?
-succint and to the point -elaborate explanations
factual/short term gains look 2 national ---------------------------------- over tones 2 make
eye contact/ engage ausdience -display status via gesture
frame of reference
bases of symbols and meanings. or glasses we have to see and how we proceive the world.
why is language seen as a symbolic code
it is just one aspect of communication. meaning is arbitrary assigned to things.
Taoism/relationship to nature
is a spiritual, philosophical and religious tradition of Chinese origin that emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao (also romanized as Dao). The term Tao means "way", "path", or "principle", and can also be found in Chinese philosophies and religions other than Taoism. In Taoism, however, Tao denotes something that is both the source of, and the force behind, everything that exists.
Taoism drew its cosmological notions from the tenets of the School of Yin Yang, and is heavily influenced and informed by the acknowledged oldest text of ancient Chinese classics, the I Ching, which prescribes a system of philosophical thought on the
► Power Distance Index (PDI)
► Individualism versus Collectivism (IDV)
► Masculinity versus Femininity (MAS)
► Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI)
► Long Term Orientation versus Short Term Normative Orientation (LTO)*
Indulgence versus Restraint (IND)
Hofstede's cultural dimensions theory is a framework for cross-cultural communication, developed by Geert Hofstede. It describes the effects of a society's culture on the values of its members, and how these values relate to behavior, using a structure derived from factor analysis.
Hofstede developed his original model as a result of using factor analysis to examine the results of a world-wide survey of employee values by IBM between 1967 and 1973. It has been refined since.
The Masculinity side of this dimension represents a preference in society for achievement, heroism, assertiveness and material rewards for success. Society at large is more competitive. Its opposite, femininity, stands for a preference for cooperation, modesty, caring for the weak and quality of life. Society at large is more consensus-oriented. In the business context Masculinity versus Femininity is sometimes also related to as "tough versus tender" cultures.
The Uncertainty Avoidance dimension expresses the degree to which the members of a society feel uncomfortable with uncertainty and ambiguity. The fundamental issue here is how a society deals with the fact that the future can never be known: should we try to control the future or just let it happen? Countries exhibiting strong UAI maintain rigid codes of belief and behaviour and are intolerant of unorthodox behaviour and ideas. Weak UAI societies maintain a more relaxed attitude in which practice counts more than principles.
teach or work along side one another is horizontal
vertical is a ranking system in the work place .
Bennett's Stages of Intercultural Sensitivity
The Bennett scale, also called the Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity (DMIS), was developed by Dr. Milton Bennett. The framework describes the different ways in which people can react to cultural differences
Denial of Difference Individuals experience their own culture as the only "real" one. Other cultures are either not noticed at all or are understood in an undifferentiated, simplistic manner. People at this position are generally uninterested in cultural difference, but when confronted with difference their seemingly benign acceptance may change to aggressive attempts to avoid or eliminate it. Most of the time, this is a result of physical or social isolation, where the person's views are never challenged and are at the center of their reality.
2.Defense against Difference One's own culture is experienced as the most "evolved" or best way to live. This position is characterized by dualistic us/them thinking and frequently accompanied by overt negative stereotyping. They will openly belittle the differences among their culture and another, denigrating race, gender or any other indicator of difference. People at this position are more openly threatened by cultural difference and more likely to be acting aggressively against it. A variation at this position is seen in reversal where one's own culture is devalued and another culture is romanticized as superior.
3.Minimization of Difference The experience of similarity outweighs the experience of difference. People recognize superficial cultural differences in food, customs, etc.,. but they emphasize human similarity in physical structure, psychological needs, and/or assumed adherence to universal values. People at this position are likely to assume that they are no longer ethnocentric, and they tend to overestimate their tolerance while underestimating the effect (e.g. "privilege") of their own culture. In other words, as explained by the Canadian Center for Intercultural Learning, "people who adopt this point of view generally approach intercultural situations with the assurance that a simple awareness of the fundamental patterns of human interaction will be sufficient to assure the success of the communication. Such a viewpoint is ethnocentric because it presupposes that the fundamental categories of behavior are absolute and that these categories are in fact our own."
4.Acceptance of Difference One's own culture is experienced as one of a number of equally complex worldviews. People at this position accept the existence of culturally different ways of organizing human existence, although they do not necessarily like or agree with every way. They can identify how culture affects a wide range of human experience and they have a framework for organizing observations of cultural difference. We recognize people from this stage through their eager questioning of others. This reflects a real desire to be informed, and not to confirm prejudices. The key words of this stage are "getting to know" or "learning."
5.Adaptation to Difference Individuals are able to expand their own worldviews to accurately understand other cultures and behave in a variety of culturally appropriate ways. Effective use of empathy, or frame of reference shifting, to understand and be understood across cultural boundaries. It is the ability to act properly outside of one's own culture. At this stage, one is able to "walk the talk."
6.Integration of Difference One's experience of self is expanded to include the movement in and out of different cultural worldviews. People at this position have a definition of self that is "marginal" (not central) to any particular culture, allowing this individual to shift rather smoothly from one cultural worldview to another
What is characteristic of Chinese culture?
Agriculture As Economic Foundation Naturalistic View Of Life
Simplicity and Contentment
Process View of The Universe
Intrinsicness of Humanism
Continuity between the Supernatural and the Human World
Family Relations and Mutual Dependence
Respect for Scholars and Contempt for Business Men
Predominance of Morality and Under-Development of Law
Explain the following terms: Face, network, membership.
Explain how knowing and learning can mean different things based on your cultural background.
What are the differences between Asian and Western logic?
eastern- universal, soul intellect, interrelated, harmony
What do you think: Are you a member of a doing or being culture?
we are a doing culture always on the go and never happy with what we have
Do you tend to do things sequentially or simultaneously?
i like to do sequentailly
The company of Fun Town Amusements takes a monochronic approach to time. This means that they have a linear time orientation where only one thing can be accomplished at a time.
To a monochronic-based company, time is a precious commodity that can be lost, saved, or wasted. Companies that embrace a monochronic time orientation view schedules and punctuality as an indispensable part of their workday. If executives of Fun Town were facing a delay in a presentation due to a speaker running late, they would be extremely upset and view the entire episode as unprofessional. Most monochronic time oriented companies are found in Western based cultures, such as the United States and Germany.
Pear Products is a high technology multinational company that embraces a polychronic, or cyclical, time orientation. They prefer to multi-task, or work on different activities at the same time. They do not stay on schedule, and in fact, will work while socializing in order to keep strong business relationships. For example, Pear Products' South American offices are known to have 3-hour business lunches where meetings are held, friendships are developed, and phone calls are answered.
Results or relationships
How do Westerners think about time? Can you think about examples in the English language?
it can be wasted "time is money" don't waste my time
Explain the difference between individualism and collectivism.
how one feels about the group ,
indiidualism- is worried about self
collecivism is worried about the group and how it will effect the well being of the group
How do Westerners feel about being indebted and about obligation? How do other cultures feel about it?
westerned feel they need to pay it back soon as possiable while other cultures are ok will favor being done or recieved with out the guilt and may even expect such actions in a collectivism society
What role does age and gender play in Western society? In other cultures?
in other cultures age and wisdom is values and respected with proper ways of addressing him/her. while in the u.s. is it not accepted that way . we rid our society of old people.
Explain the concept of Face. How does it work?
The term face idiomatically refers to one's own sense of dignity or prestige in social contexts. In the English-speaking world, the expression "To save face" describes the lengths that an individual may go to in order to preserve their established position in society, taking action to ensure that one is not thought badly of by their peers. It is a fundamental concept in the fields of sociology, sociolinguistics, semantics, politeness theory, psychology, political science, communication, and face negotiation theory, and translates at least somewhat equivalently into many world languages, both Germanic and otherwise.
Cognitive frames (Bloor and Bloor)
is a word used to describe a cognitive model that links together separate entities in our mind. "mental structures that shape the way we see the world and that are triggered by words."
Explain the difference between "high-context" and "low-context" cultures.
-Relationships depend on trust, build up slowly, are stable. One distinguishes between people inside and people outside one's circle.
-How things get done depends on relationships with people and attention to group process.
-One's identity is rooted in groups (family, culture, work).
-Social structure and authority are centralized; responsibility is at the top. Person at top works for the good of the group.
Interaction-High use of nonverbal elements; voice tone, facial expression, gestures, and eye movement carry significant parts of conversation.
•Verbal message is implicit; context (situation, people, nonverbal elements) is more important than words.
•Verbal message is indirect; one talks around the point and embellishes it.
•Communication is seen as an art form—a way of engaging someone.
• Disagreement is personalized. One is sensitive to conflict expressed in another's nonverbal communication. Conflict either must be solved before work can progress or must be avoided because it is personally threatening
Territoriality •Space is communal; people stand close to each other, share the same space
Temporality • Everything has its own time. Time is not easily scheduled; needs of people may interfere with keeping to a set time. What is important is that activity gets done.
• Change is slow. Things are rooted in the past, slow to change, and stable.
• Time is a process; it belongs to others and to nature.
•Knowledge is embedded in the situation; things are connected, synthesized, and global. Multiple sources of information are used. Thinking is deductive, proceeds from general to specific.
•Learning occurs by first observing others as they model or demonstrate and then practicing.
•Groups are preferred for learning and problem solving.
•Accuracy is valued. How well something is learned is important
Association •Relationships begin and end quickly. Many people can be inside one's circle; circle's boundary is not clear.
•Things get done by following procedures and paying attention to the goal.
•One's identity is rooted in oneself and one's accomplishments.
•Social structure is decentralized; responsibility goes further down (is not concentrated at the top).
Interaction •Low use of nonverbal elements. Message is carried more by words than by nonverbal means.
•Verbal message is explicit. Context is less important than words.
•Verbal message is direct; one spells things out exactly.
•Communication is seen as a way of exchanging information, ideas, and opinions.
• Disagreement is depersonalized. One withdraws from conflict with another and gets on with the task. Focus is on rational solutions, not personal ones. One can be explicit about another's bothersome behavior.
Territoriality •Space is compartmentalized and privately owned; privacy is important, so people are farther apart.
Temporality •Things are scheduled to be done at particular times, one thing at a time. What is important is that activity is done efficiently.
•Change is fast. One can make change and see immediate results.
•Time is a commodity to be spent or saved. One's time is one's own
Learning •Reality is fragmented and compartmentalized. One source of information is used to develop knowledge. Thinking is inductive, proceeds from specific to general. Focus is on detail.
•Learning occurs by following explicit directions and explanations of others.
•An individual orientation is preferred for learning and problem solving.
•Speed is valued. How efficiently something is learned is important
individuals are those who prefer to complete one task at a time. For them, task-oriented time is distinguished from socio-emotional time. In other words, there is a time to play and a time to work. These individuals value punctuality, completing tasks, and keeping to schedules. They view time as if it were linear, that is, one event happening at a time. Examples of monochronic cultures include the U.S., Israel, Germany, and Switzerland.
on the other hand, are more flexible about time schedules; they have no problem integrating task-oriented activities with socio-emotional ones. For them, maintaining relationships and socializing are more important than accomplishing tasks. These individuals usually see time in a more holistic manner; in other words, many events may happen at once. Latin America, the Middle East, and Africa are places where the polychronic orientation prevails.
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