Chapter 18 - Climate and Climate Change - Section II
Terms in this set (63)
What factors are used by scientists to classify climates
temperature and precipitation
What are the 6 main climate regions
tropical rainy, dry, temperate marine, temperate continental, polar, highlands
What are the two types of rainy climates in the tropics
tropical wet and tropical wet and dry
Who was the one who developed a system in 1900 to classify broad climate regions
What 3 things did Koppen use to classify climate?
temperature, precipitation and vegetation
Maps show boundaries between climate regions but what happens in the real world
no clear boundaries mark where one climate region ends and another begins. Each region gradually blends into the next.
Where are tropical wet climates found and what is the temperature?
in low lying lands near the equator and the temperature is always 18 degrees celcius and above
What is the weather like in tropical wet climates?
Always hot and humid with heavy rainfall all year round (at least 6 cm per month).
What is the weather like in tropical wet and dry climates?
Always hot, alternating wet and dry seasons. Heavy rainfall in the wet season
What brings heavy rainfall to tropical wet climates?
Midday heating and prevailing winds (trade winds which bring water from the ocean).
What is found in tropical wet climates as a result of the heavy rainfall?
Lush, green vegetation, dense rain forests
forests in which large amounts of rain fall year round
Where are rain forests found in the United States?
Only on the windward side of the Hawaiian islands..the windward side of the Hawaiian island of Kaui.
Why are tropical rain forests important?
Because at least half of the world's species of land plants and animals are found there.
What are tropical wet and dry climates?
Areas that receive slightly less rain than tropical climates and have distinct dry and rainy seasons
What part of the U.S. has a tropical wet and dry climate?
The southern tip of Florida and also Makindu,Kenya in East Africa.
occurs where potential evaporation is greater than precipitation; dry climate may be hot or cold
dry but receives about 25 to 50 centimeters of precipitation per year
desert with little precipitation, usually less than 25 centimeters per year
What are the 2 types of dry climates?
arid and semiarid climates
Why would a cool place with low rainfall not be as dry as a warmer place that receives the same amount of rain?
because water evaporates more slowly in cool weather
Where do dry areas lie in the U.S.?
They often lie inland, far from oceans that are the source of humid air masses. Much of the region lies in the rain shadow east of the Sierra Nevada and Rocky Mountains. Humid air masses from the Pacific Ocean lose much of their water as they cross the mountains, therefore little rain or snow is carried to dry regions.
an arid region that on average receives less than 25 centimeters of rain a year.
How is the weather in deserts?
Some are hot and sandy, but others are cold or rocky
large semiarid areas that are usually located on the edges of deserts. It can be called a prairie or grassland.
Where are large semiarid areas located?
on the edges of deserts
What is the weather on a steppe like?
Dry but it gets enough rainfall for short grasses and low bushes to grow.
Give an example of a steppe region of U.S.?
the Great Plains of the U.S.
Where are temperate marine climates found?
along the coasts of continents in the temperate zones
What are the 3 types of temperate marine climates?
Marine west coast, humid subtropical, and Mediterranean
What types of weather do the temperate marine climates have?
Because of the moderating influence of oceans, they are humid and have mild winters
What weather does marine west coast climates have?
mild winters and cool summers with moderate precipitation all year
What weather do humid subtropical climates have?
hot summers and cool winters
What weather do mediterranean climates have?
warm, dry summers and rainy winters
Where are marine west coast climates found in North America?
extends from northern California to southern Alaska
What is found in marine west coast climates due to the heavy precipitation?
Thick forests of tall trees grow in this region including coniferous, or cone bearing trees.
What is one of the main industries of the marine west coast climates?
Harvesting and processing wood for lumber, paper, and furniture.
a coastal climate that is drier and warmer than west coast marine and are found around the Mediterranean Sea. It has 2 seasons, winters are cool and rainy and summers are warmer and dry.
Where in the U.S. is there a mediterranean climate?
the southern coast of California, Santa Barbara
What 2 vegetation types do Mediterranean climates have?
chaparral which is made up of dense shrubs and small trees, and grasses with a few large trees.
a vegetation type found in Mediterranean regions made up of dense shrubs and small trees
humid subtropic climates
temperate marine climates that are wet and warm but not as constantly hot as the tropics. Summers are hot with much more rainfall than in winters. Winters are cool to mild with more rain than snow. Polar air masses moving in from the north can bring freezing temperatures and frosts. Maritime tropical air masses move inland, bringing tropical weather conditions, including thunderstorms and occasional hurricanes to southern cities such as Houston, New Orleans, and Atlanta.
Where is there a humid subtropic climate in the U.S.
the southeastern U.S.
What are crops in the Humid Subtropical region of the U.S.?
oranges, peaches, peanuts, sugar cane, and rice.
What types of forests grow in the humid subtropical climate of the U.S.?
mixed forests of oak, ash, hickory, and pines.
Temperate continental climates are not influenced very much by oceans because they are inland so they commonly have
extremes of temperature
Where are temperate continental climates found?
on continents in the Northern hemisphere
What are the 2 types of temperate continental climates?
humid continental and subartic
Humid continental climates
Hot, humid summers and cold winters, with moderate precipitation year round
short, cool summers and long, cold winters; light precipitation, mainly in summer
What parts of the U.S. have a Humid continental climate?
the eastern part of the region, the Northeast and the Midwest (the western part of this region).
lie north of the humid continental climates, includes parts of Alaska.
the coldest climate region and includes the ice cap and tundra climates
Where are the ice cap and tundra climates found ?
in the far north and south, near the North and South poles
What is the weather like in polar climates
cold and dry
Where are ice cap climates found?
on Greenland and in Antarctica
ice cap climate
always cold, average temperature at or below 0 degrees celcius, the land is covered with ice and snow. Intense cold makes the air dry. Lichens and a few low plants may grow on rocks.
short cool summers follow bitterly cold winters. Some of the layers of tundra soil are always frozen because of the cold. Warmest temperature is 10 degrees celcius. The soil is wet and boggy in the summer because of the permafrost the water in the soil cannot drain away.
permanently frozen tundra soil
What grows in the tundra?
It is too cold for trees to grow. During the short summers there is life, mosquitoes, other insects, mosses, grasses, lichens, wildflowers and shrubs grow.
temperature falls as altitude increases so these regions are colder than the regions that surround them. Generally cooler and wetter than nearby lowlands, temperature decreasing with altitude.
Increasing altitude produces climate changes similar to the climate changes you would expect with
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