PPR Theories and Theorists
Terms in this set (27)
Theorized that the human being is more complex; a holistic approach. He devised a theory of a hierarchy of needs. He proposed that when a need is met, the need goes away. Unmet needs remain. As needs are met, people move to higher levels of consciousness.
Maslow's Deficiency Needs
1. Social Needs
2. Safety Needs
3. Physiological Needs
Maslow's Growth Needs
If deficiency needs are met,
People are able to address growth needs.
He noticed that cognitive development (how knowledge develops) undergoes transitions at about age 2, 7 and 1.
Cognitive maturity- 7 to 11 years of age
- "Hands on" thinking
- Identity (material remains same despite changes)
- Compensation (change in one thing can be compensated by change in another)
- Reversibility (ability to reverse a process)
- Seriation (understanding of sequential relationships)
Cognitive maturity- 2 to 7 years of age
- Semiotic function (ability to use symbols)
- One-way logic
- Difficulty with the principle of conservation.
Cognitive maturity- 0 to 2 years of age
- Learning through 5 senses.
- Develops object permanence.
- The beginning of goal-directed actions.
Cognitive maturity-11 to adulthood
- Focus shifts from "what is" to "what might be"
- Hypothetico-deductive reasoning.
- Abstract thinking.
- "Scientific" reasoning.
- Adolescent egocentrism & imaginary audience.
- Not all individuals reach this stage.
Five Contributions of Vygotsky to Understanding of Cognitive Development
1. Social Interaction
2. Private Speech
4. Assisted Learning
5. Zone of Proximal Development
Implications of Piaget's Theory for Teachers
- Gives understanding how students' think.
- Suggests matching teaching approach to each cognitive stage.
- Since learners construct knowledge, teachers can build on what is learned.
- Learners learn through play
Disequilibrium motivates learning
Implications of Vygotsky's Theory for Teachers
- Provides assisted learning pairs
- Use scaffolding to find the zone of proximal development
- Engage in collaborative learning
- Provide alternative assessments
- Identify the funds of knowledge from the family's culture.
Concluded that all people develop their personalities throughout their lives as they move through eight stages of development.
In this state adolescents have accepted without question the identity and values that were conferred in childhood.
This is a state in flux. The individual has begun to develop an identity but has difficulty resolving moral and ethical issues.
The adolescent in this state may have tried to explore identity, but is no longer motivated to do so.
In this state the crisis in identity has been resolved, and the person has defined basic value and goals.
Maintained that Piaget's stages are necessary but not sufficient to describe the stages of moral reasoning. He also concluded that there are three levels, each having two stages, or moral development based on what he learned from a study of the reasoning of men and boys in response to moral dilemmas he presented to them
Kohlberg's Level One: Pre-conventional (personal needs and other rules)
Stage 1- Respect of Power
Stage 2- Individualism and Exchange (you scratch my back, I'll scratch yours)
Kohlberg's Level Two: Conventional (other's expectations and approval and laws of society)
Stage 3- Mutual Expectations
Stage 4- Social System and Conscience
Kohlberg's Level Three: Post-Conventional
Stage 5- Social Contract and Individual Rights
Stage 6- Universal Principles (individual conscience and abstract concepts of justice, human dignity, and equality).
What the learner will produce at the end of a lesson to demonstrate master of the new skill or knowledge.
Objectives describe student performance rather than teaching behavior
Objectives are to be stated as learning outcomes
State the objective as a product, not as a process.
Is sometimes called a "hook" to grab the students' attention. Research has shows how an introduction to a given lesson increases student learning and understanding. There is theoretical basis in cognitive constructivism in that suggests the "hook" elicits students' background knowledge, and the teacher links this background knowledge to new concepts to be learned.
Checking for Understanding
The purpose is to determine whether students understand the modeled concept before proceeding to guided practice.
This step is an opportunity for students to demonstrate their grasp of new learning by working through an activity or exercise under the teacher's direct supervision.
Once students understand the given concept, they need to practice the concept on their own.