Terms in this set (11)
Designing Instruction and Assessment to Promote Student Learning:
1. Human Development
4. How Learning Occurs
Competency 001: Human Development
The teacher understands human developmental processes and applies this knowledge to plan instruction and ongoing assessment that motivate students and are responsive to their developmental characteristics and needs.
Human Development Theorists Discussed in Competency 001
James Marcia Lawrence Kohlberg Carol Gilligan
Competency 001 Goal
Directs teachers to be attentive to changes in students as they grow: Physically
Teachers must be responsive to a student's:
Emotional needs Reasoning skills
The Internal Environment
Abraham Maslow (1906-1970) Maslow was a humanistic psychologist who suggested that what people need determines the level at which they function. He devised a theory of a hierarchy of needs. He proposed that when a need is met, the need goes away. Unmet needs remain. As needs are met, people move to higher levels of consciousness. Deficiency needs energize or move people to meet them when these needs are unfulfilled.
If deficiency needs are met, people are able to address growth needs.
Growth needs expand and increase as people have positive experiences with them.
Jean Piaget (1896-1980) - His work formed a basis for the present body of research about the behavior of children and how they learn.
- He conducted detailed studies of intelligence, learning, and memory.
- He noticed that cognitive development (how knowledge develops) undergoes transitions at about age 2, 7 and 11.
- These transitions defined stages of development that limit children to learning in certain ways at certain ages.
Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development
Sensorimotor Stage: 0-2 Years
- Learning through 5 senses.
- Develops object permanence.
- The beginning of goal-directed actions.
Concrete Operational Stage: 7-11 years
- Hands on thinking
- Identity (material remains same despite changes)
- Compensation (change in one thing can be compensated by change in another)
- Reversibility (ability to reverse a process)
- Seriation (understanding of sequential relationships)
Preoperational Stage: 2-7 years
- Semiotic function -ability to use symbols. - One-way logic.
- Difficulty with the principle of conservation.
- Egocentrism - Collective monologue.
Formal Operational Stage: 11 years to Adult
- Focus shifts from ―what is to ―what might be.
- Hypothetico-deductive reasoning. Abstract thinking. ―Scientific reasoning. - Adolescent egocentrism & imaginary audience . -- Not all individuals reach this stage.