United States Government Democracy in Action Chapter 13
This is a study guide that I made to help me study for my Government Final. Use the cards for the best study environment
Terms in this set (34)
Bill of rights
Composed of the first 10 amendments
extended the Bill of Rights to all levels of government
Barron v. Baltimore (1833)
(1833) Upheld the view that there should be limits on national government to prevent if from controlling the press. restricting speech, establishing or prohibiting religion, and limiting other areas of personal liberty.
a person bprn or naturalized in the united states is a citizen of the nation and of his or her state of residence.
Gitlow v. New York (1925)
(1925) supreme court ruled that freedom of speech was a basic right that no state government could deny to any person
first clause of the first amendment, that states that congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion.
Free Exercise Clause
second clause of the first amendment, that prohibits government exercise of religion.
Everson v. Board of Education (1947)
involved a challenge to a New Jersey law allowing the state to pay for busing students to parochial schools. Ruled Constitutional
Schools that are operated by a church or religious group
Board of Education v. Allen (1968)
(1968) court upheld state programs to provdie secular, or nonreligious, textbooks to parochial schools.
Wolman v. Walter (1997)
(1997) Banned use of state-supported transportation for field trips
Lemon v. Kurtzman (1971)
(1971) A case in which the court used a 3 part test to decide whether aid is consitutional and does not violate establishment clause.
- Have a clear secular, non-religious purpose
- In its main effect, neither advance nor inhibit religion
- avoid excessive gov. entanglement with religion
Levitt v. Committee for Public Education v. (1973)
(1973) Court voided a New York plan to help pay for parochial schools developing testing programs. (It was voided because the tests were made by the teachers, and it was a religious test.
Committee for Public Education v. Regan (1980)
(1980) Court approved New York State to pay parochial schools to administer and grade tests. - (state mandated tests)
Mueller v. Allen (1983)
(1983) court upheld a Minnesota law allowing parents to deduct tuition, textbooks and transportation to and from school from their state income tax.
Mitcehll v. Helms (2000)
(2000) Court ruled that taxpayer funds could be used to provide religious schools with computers, library books, projectors, televisions, and similar equipment as long as they are not used for religious purposes.
Kiryas Joel v. Grumet (1994)
(1994) - Court ruled that New York State could not create a public school district solely for the benefit of a m=community of hasidic jews.
McCollum v. Board of Education (1948)
(1948) Public schools in champaign, Illinois, had a program in which religion teachers came into the schools once a week and gave instructions to students who desired it. Court declared this unconstitutional because school classroom's tax-supported public facilities were being used for religious purposes
Zorach v. Clauson (1952)
(1952) Court accepted a NYC program that allowed religious instruction during the school day but away from the public schools. They ruled a release-time program of religious instruction was constitutional if carried on in private rather than public facilities.
Engel v. Vitale
a school prayer case that began in NYS. Permitted when it was voluntary, and if it was not led by a faculty/staff member. Not permitted when led by a religious leader, or at public venues such as football games/graduation, even if it was led by a student because it was deemed a "captive audience" situation.
Equal Access Act 1984
Allows student led clubs to meet a school for prayer groups, outside of class time.
Westside Community Schhools v. Mergen 1990
deemed the equal access act constitutional because it was started and led by the students
Epperson v. Arkansas (1968)
where justices voided an Arkansas law that banned teaching evolution in public schools. Unconstitutional
Edwards v. Aguillard
court ruled that a law requiring the teachingof creationism violated the establishment cuase because its primary purpose was to "endorse a particular religious doctrine
Reynolds v. U.S 1879
Bigamy is illegal even if your religion allows it.
Jacobson v. Massachusetts 1905
must get vaccinated even if its against your religion.
Oregon v. Smith 1990
Cannot do drugs on job or have it in system at work.
CIty of Boerne, Tx v. Flores
the religious freedom restoration act is unconstitutional
Wisconsin v. Yoder 1972
State couldnt require Amish parents to send their children to public school beyond the eight grade. Court ruled, would violate long-held Amish religious beliefs that were intimately related to daily living and would present a very real threat of undermining the Amish community.
Lynch v. Donnelly (1984)
court allowed the city of Pawtucket, Rhode Island, t display a nativity scene with secular items such as a christmas tree and a sleigh and a reindeer.
County of Alleghany v. ACLU 1989
the court ruled that a publicly funded nativity scene by itself violated the constitutution.
Marsh v. Chambers 1983
court ruled that ban on school prayer doesnt extent to government meeting so justices ruled that prayers have been offered in legislatures since colonial times, and unlike students, legislatures are not "susceptible" to religious indoctrination. Therefore not violated the establishment clause by such prayers.
Minersville School district vs Gobitis 1940
court upheld school regulation, saying that flag is a patriotic symbol. court ruled, and requiring the salute did not infringe on religious freedom.