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Terms in this set (58)
What morphological characters are typical in Diptera?
-"primitive Flies- Coliform type larvae
-Halteres - "advanced flies- Maggots
-Unit derived from scorpion flies
Why are Diptera a very successful group (and so diverse)?
- Are excellent because they can hover and fly backwards - turn in place and fly upside down to land on ceiling
1) adults and larvae in separate niches
2) adults excellent dispersers (some black flies up to 450 km!)
3) larvae adapted to nutritious decay
4) short generation time for many species (7-10 days)
5) common worldwide, but become the dominant insect group in cold climates.
Tipulid flies (family Tipulidae) have an interesting defense strategy: what is it and why is it beneficial?
stilt like legs that may be easily shed to escape from predators
What are major differences between non-biting midges and mosquitoes?
Extremely annoying, but they do not vector any diseases
What is unique about the Tsetse Fly (in the family Muscidae)? What are key characters that help you identify a Tsetse fly? What services/dis-services does this fly provide?
Unusual life cycle, fold their wings so that one wing rests on top of the other, long proboscis which extends forward, vector of trypanosomiasis
Why should crime scene investigators be able to recognize certain insects (such as blow flies, beetles etc.) or their traces?
Id species, determine where they are in the life cycle - then backtrack to get TOD
Blow Flies can locate dead flesh within minutes
Where do adults mosquitoes obtain nutrition from? Either a flower or blood from another mammal
Females - blood from mammals for egg development, Males - flowers
What is unusual about Toxorhynchites mosquitoes?
Larvae are predatory and feed on other mosquito larvae
What is unique about Phorid flies (family Phoridae)? Why might they be good biocontrol agents?
some are parasitoids of ants
Ant-decapitating Phorid flies: typically species specific and often caste specific
What diseases can insects vector and what insects serve as vectors?
1. Causal agent: a rickettsia
Vector: human body louse (Pediculus humanus humanus)
2. the "black death" and bubonic plague
Vector: fleas (including the Oriental rat flea)
Causal agent: a bacterium, Yersinia pestis
3. West Nile Virus
Vectors: mosquitoes (mostly Culex spp.)
Causal agent: Plasmodium spp. (a protozoan)
Vector: mosquitoes -
5. Yellow Fever (YF)
Vectored by yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti) and Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus)
Causal agent: virusnative to Africa
Virus is related toWest Nile Virus
Causal agent: thread-like "worms", called nematodes, such as Wuchereria bancrofti
Vectored by: mosquitoes (multiple genera)
7. Zika virus
spread through mosquito bites
8. Chikungunya virus
What is plague?
the "black death" and bubonic plague
Order: Siphonaptera (= "tube" + "wingless")
Septicemic: flea bites, affects blood, turns skin black (hence, Black Death)
What are the 3 categories of plague and their symptoms?
1. Bubonic: most common, flea bites
"Bubos" = swellings of the lymph nodes (armpits, neck, groin)
2. Septicemic: flea bites, affects blood, turns skin black (hence, Black Death)
3. Pneumonic: affects lungs, spread through air (sneezing, etc.)
What factors may have increased the likelihood of plague?
1. High density living (cities)
2. Lack of sanitation, thus rodents & fleas
3. Ignorance: no knowledge of disease cycle, transmission
Has there been plague in the US? Why is plague not an epidemic in the US today? is West Nile Virus (WNV)?
Average of 7 human cases of plague per year
What is the West Nile Virus ?
a flavivirus of African origin that can be spread to humans and other mammals via mosquitoes, causing encephalitis (inflammation of the brain, caused by infection or an allergic reaction) and flulike symptoms, with some fatalities
What are methods to control WNV? What are they trying to control: the vector or the pathogen?
repellents with: DEET, picaridin, IR3535, or oil of lemon eucalyptus; vector-mosquitos
What is malaria? What causes it and what are the symptoms? Where is malaria most widespread?
-an intermittent and remittent fever caused by a protozoan parasite that invades the red blood cells. The parasite is transmitted by mosquitoes in many tropical and subtropical regions.
-Symptoms are: Fever, chills, sweats, headaches, body aches, nausea and vomiting, general malaise
-most widespread in Africa
What are some control measures effective against malaria vectors?
Ultra Low Volume & cold fogging pesticide applications
Elimination of habitat
Pyrethroid (chemical class)
Very low mammalian toxicity
What is Yellow Fever and why is it called Yellow Fever?
Vectored by yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti) and Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus); a tropical viral disease affecting the liver and kidneys, causing fever and jaundice and often fatal. It is transmitted by mosquitoes.
How did they discover the vector of Yellow Fever?
On August 27, 1900, Carroll allowed an infected mosquito to feed on him. He developed a severe case of yellow fever but helped his colleague, Walter Reed, prove that mosquitoes transmitted the feared disease.
What is elephantiasis and its symptoms?
Disfiguring disease, lymph nodes harbor filarial worms leading to incomplete lymph drainage; Most cases are symptomless. Rarely, long-term damage to the lymph system causes swelling in the legs, arms, and genitalia. It also increases the risk of frequent bacterial infections that harden and thicken the skin
What prevention measures are available for elephantiasis?
-Residual pesticide applications indoors
-Avoid outside activity at dawn and dusk
(not in the US)
-surgery for pain
What are the social impacts of elephantiasis?
-Communities shun men and women who exhibit signs of -the disease
-Inability to work
-Harm done to families
What is Zika virus fever? What are its vectors and causal agent? What can be done to treat or prevent its spread?
an illness caused by the Zika virus. Most cases have no symptoms, but when present they are usually mild and can resemble dengue fever. Symptoms may include fever, red eyes, joint pain, headache, and a maculopapular rash; is spread to people primarily through the bite of an infected Aedes species mosquito.
What is Chikungunya? What are its vectors and causal agent? What can be done to treat or prevent its spread?
Chikungunya is an illness caused by a virus that spreads through mosquito bites; treated symptomatically, usually with bed rest, fluids, and medicines to relieve symptoms of fever and aching such as ibuprofen, naproxen, acetaminophen, or paracetamol; Use air conditioning or window/door screens to keep mosquitoes outside. ...
Help reduce the number of mosquitoes outside your home or hotel room by emptying standing water from containers such as flowerpots or buckets.
When weather permits, wear long-sleeved shirts and long pants.
What is biocontrol? What are common strategies? What are some examples?
the control of a pest by the introduction of a natural enemy or predator. "classical biological control" involves the discovery, importation, and establishment of exotic natural enemies with the hope that they will suppress a particular organism's population; Natural enemies of insect pests, also known as biological control agents, include predators, parasitoids, and pathogens. Biological control of weeds includes insects and pathogens.
When considering potential biocontrol agents, how do predators and parasitoids differ? Which may be better biological control agents and why?
Parasitoid: Its development --> death of the host
Parasite: Its development injures/sickens the host but
does not kill it
Predators = generalists
Parasitoids = specialists
What is meant by "cosmetic damage" when referring to fruits and vegetables?
Aesthetically ugly fruit, damages how it looks
What is the difference between a parasite and parasitoid?
Parasite = injures / sickens
Parasitoid = kills
What is Huanglongbing? Why is it a problem? What are its vector and causal agent?
formerly Citrus Greening Disease; FRUIT HAS NO VALUE! POOR SIZE, POOR QUALITY, BITTER TASTE; vector: The Asian citrus psyllid; causal agent: Candidatus Liberibacter spp. (Liberibacter asiaticus, Liberibacter africanus,Liberibacter americanus)
Explain the plant-pollinator mutualism
Plants benefit because the organism makes fertilization happen. Pollinator benefits because they collect resources for themselves.
What is a pollinator and how does it differ from a floral visitor?
Pollinator = fertilizes flowers
Floral visitors = visits flower only to collect resources
What insects are pollinators? What are the different strategies?
Hymenoptera (bees, wasps, and ants)
Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths)
General pollinator = visits a wide range of flower species, learns how to handle multiple flowers, often grows to favor one flower over another, NOT RELIANT of success of host plant
Specialist pollinator = visits few or one flower species, emerges at the same time as their host plant, HIGHLY RELIANT on the success of host plant
What is pollination? Why is it important to us? To plants? To pollinators? What can we do to maximize pollination services provided by bees?
Pollination is the act of transferring pollen grains from the male anther of a flower to the female stigma. It is critical for food production and human livelihoods, and directly links wild ecosystems with agricultural production systems.
What is the Pollinator Crisis and what does this mean for food production in the U.S.?
global reduction in bee pollinators; Habitat destruction and fragmentation, Climate change, Invasive species, Increased pesticide use and misuse (especially neonicotinoids); Disease and mites;
What are some causes of bee decline and how do they affect bees?
Habitat loss, Pest poisoning, Viruses and mites, Climate change, Invasive species
What can we do to help promote healthy bees?
Planting garden full of native flowering plants, provide space, don't overuse pesticides
What are the differences between a non-native, introduced species and an invasive species (if any)?
Introduced species = species introduced from somewhere else
Invasive species = a non native species that invades a habitat and causes ecological, environmental, econ damage
What are common mechanisms of introduction?
Shipments, tourists, cargo
Do you think the rate of introduction is likely to increase or decrease in the future? Why?
Increase (number of species introductions continues to grow)
What are some the ecological, economic, and environmental impacts of invaders?
Threatens ecosystem's stability
Generates significant environmental and economic cost
Could disrupt food webs and ecological services
What characters make a good invader and why?
Escape from natural enemies, better compatibility, pre adapted to disturbed environment
What is CCD and how does it relate to the Pollinator Crisis?
Colony Collapse Disorder; A particular phenomenon which is characterized by all the worker bees from a honeybee colony abruptly disappearing. No adult bees. Both honey and pollen stores are present. No accumulation of dead bees. Queen is present
Describe the three stages of introduction.
Prevention of arrival
What control measures are used at each stage?
Prevention of arrival → inspection
Establishment → detection, eradication
What is the likelihood of successful eradication at each stage?
Ultimately only 0.
What are examples of accidental and intentional introduction?
Accidental introduction: Asian longhorned beetle (from wood packing material from China/ Japan → kills native trees → costs billions of dollars of annual damage)
Intentional introduction: Gypsy moth (intentionally brought for silk production but also may defoliate forests)
Why is the red imported fire ant a damaging invader?
It's attracted to electricity, blows out street lights in Texas
What makes some ecosystems particularly sensitive to invasion?
Disturbance! Human residential areas: many invasive species that are commensal with humans; Isolated habitats: little history with competitors, predators, parasites, or diseases
What is the western yellowjacket? Where is it native and where has it invaded?
a Nearctic species of wasp in the genus Vespula. It is native to regions of North America, largely in areas with northern temperate climates. Colorado
Why are Culex important?
St. Louis Encephalitis
Which pathways are involved in activation of sperm motility in Culex?
testes, accessory glands. and seminal vesicles
Where are trypsin-like proteins/serine proteases located in the mosquito?
Bombyx mori - initiatorin initiates motility
Orthopteran - serine protease initiates sperm
Culex quinquefasciatus and Aquarius remigis - trypsin like molecule initiates motility in vitro
What is necessary to get sperm to move?
trypsin, G-protein, MAPK pathway. posphorylation of axenomal proteins
What are Navel Orangeworm (NOW) and what are they a pest of?
a moth of the Pyralidae family. It is native to the south-western United States and Mexico; pest of a number of crops, including Juglans regia, Ficus carica, Prunus dulcis and Pistacia vera.
What group of arthropods do symphylans belong to? How do symphylans move?
Myriapoda; many segments (up to 14)
8-12 pairs of legs
What crops are symphylans a pest on? How are they currently managed and how might they be managed in the future if our research is successful?
feed on decaying organic matter and on the roots of a very wide range of living crops and other plants, including weeds. Flooding for 3 weeks can limit the problem in some situations if your soil will hold the water. Vigorously disturbing the soil when it is dry just prior to planting by rototilling may reduce populations through abrasion of the pest's soft body.
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