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Science Final Study Guide
Terms in this set (118)
What tool(s) can we use to find mass? What are the appropriate unit(s) to measure this?
Electronic balance, triple beam balance; measured in grams (g).
What tool(s) can we use to find volume? What are the appropriate unit(s) to measure this?
Centimeter ruler (l x w x h) for a rectangular solid; graduated cylinder for irregular object or liquid; measured in centimeters cubed (cm3) or milliliters (mL).
What tool(s) can we use to find a small length? What are the appropriate unit(s) to measure this?
Centimeter ruler; measured in centimeters (cm).
What tool(s) can we use to find a large length? What are the appropriate unit(s) to measure this?
Meter stick or tape measure; measured in meters (m).
What do we use a spring scale for? What units are used for this measurement?
Used to measure force; measured in newtons (N).
What is the proper technique for using a graduated cylinder?
Proper technique is to get at eye level and read the bottom of the meniscus (the curve that the liquid forms).
What are the essential labels and information needed on a line graph?
X and Y axis labels
X and y axis scales
Line showing trend of data
Key (if necessary)
Do's and Don'ts of the Science Lab
Do- Ask a teacher for help if you spill something, be responsible, follow instructions, wear goggles when told to, tie back long hair.
Don't- Engage in horseplay, clean up broken glass, not eat drink or chew gum, notify teacher of an injury.
What does the Sun do for us? (think of at least 4 things)
Provides heat and light; powers water cycle; powers photosynthesis; provides vitamin D.
What motions cause us to see phases of the moon? (How long does the cycle take? What is the pattern?)
As the Earth revolves around the Sun, the Moon revolves (orbits) around the Earth. Throughout its about one month orbit, half of the Moon is always reflecting light from the Sun, but we see the reflected part differently depending on where the Moon is in its orbit around the Earth.
How much of the Moon is always illuminated by the Sun?
One half (50%).
What does waxing mean?
The amount of lighted moon visible is growing LARGER.
What does waning mean?
The amount of lighted moon visible is growing SMALLER.
What does crescent mean?
Less than 50% of the lighted side of the moon is visible.
What does gibbous mean?
More than 50% of the lighted moon is visible.
What effects does the Moon have on Earth?
Light at night
Controls tides on Earth (rising and falling off the sea at beaches)
Phases of the Moon
What is the orbital relationship between the Earth,
Moon, and Sun?
The moon orbits the earth as the earth is orbiting the sun.
What is the shape of Earth's orbit around the Sun?
What causes the seasons?
Earth is tilted 23.5° as it orbits the Sun, so the length of daylight hours and directness of sunlight change.
How are seasons different in the northern and southern hemispheres?
Due to Earth being tilted 23.5° as it orbits the Sun, while one hemisphere is tilted toward the Sun, the other is tilted away, so the seasons are OPPOSITE in the northern and southern hemisphere. When northern is having summer, southern is having winter and vice versa.
Define photoperiod. (Why is it important to understanding seasons?)
The length of daylight hours in a day on Earth. It is important because the longer the Sun shines on Earth, the warmer it can become. Changing photoperiod is evidence that the seasons are caused by the tilted Earth.
What places on Earth experience extreme changes in photoperiod? What places have little
to no change over the year?
The farther a place is north or south of the equator, the more extreme its photoperiod will be. Places near the equator experience a very stable photoperiod.
Define angle of sunlight. (Why is it important to understanding seasons?)
Angle of sunlight is how directly the sunlight is hitting the Earth. The more direct the sunlight, the higher the temperature (summer). Vice versa is also true.
What is gravity? What direction does it act in on Earth?
Force of attraction between two objects which is influenced by the mass of the two objects and the distance between the two objects. On Earth, it PULLS to the center of the Earth.
What two factors affect strength of the gravitational force on an object?
The mass of the two objects, and their distance apart.
State/phase of matter; particles are tightly packed and vibrating against each other; set shape, set volume.
State/phase of matter; particles are able to slide past each other; takes shape of its container (no set shape); set volume.
State/phase of matter; particles move freely and quickly; no set shape, no set volume.
How are particles arranged in a solid?
How are particles arranged in a liquid?
Looser than solid, spread out.
How are particles arranged in a gas?
Not packed together at all.
How are the particles moving in a solid?
Vibrating against each other.
How are the particles moving in a liquid?
Able to slide past each other.
How are the particles moving in a gas?
Moving quickly and freely, ZOOMING.
Compare the strength of the connections between molecules in Solid, Liquid, and Gas.
solid: very strong
liquid: between solid and gas
What is Melting?
Phase change from a solid to a liquid.
What is Evaporation?
Phase change from a liquid to a gas (at the surface of the liquid).
What is Boiling?
Phase change from a liquid to a gas (all throughout the liquid).
What is Freezing?
Phase change from a liquid to a solid.
What is Condensation?
Phase change from a gas to a liquid.
What is Sublimation?
Phase change from a solid directly to a gas (never becomes liquid).
What is Deposition?
Phase change from a gas directly to a solid (never becomes liquid).
What is matter?
Anything made of atoms that has mass AND volume.
What is mass?
How much atoms/matter ("stuff") is packed into an object. Weight is the force of gravity pulling on an object's mass. Always the same no matter where you are, however, weight will change depending on the force of gravity.
What is volume?
Is the amount of space that a substance takes up (occupies).
What is the definition of an atom?
Smallest part of an element that keeps the properties of the element.
How large are atoms?
Atoms are VERY, VERY, VERY...small. They cannot be seen with the most powerful microscopes we have here at Macopin or the at the high school. There are trillions (approximately) of atoms in one grain of sand.
If you are given a sample of an element like gold, what do you know about all its atoms?
All of the atoms of an element like gold are IDENTICAL to each other.
Atoms are mostly _______________ space.
What is the law of conservation of mass/matter?
States that in a chemical reaction, mass/matter cannot be created or destroyed, atoms (mass) are conserved.
What is an element?
A substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances; it has a fixed composition - it is made of only 1 type of atom
What is a compound?
Matter made of 2 or more elements that are chemically bonded and have properties different from the elements that make them up; can only be separated chemically (electrolysis, heat, chemical reaction, etc.)
What is a mixture?
It is made of 2 or more substances that combine, but keep most of their properties; can be separated physically (filtration, evaporation, etc.)
What is a physical change?
A change that occurs when some properties of a material change, but the substances in the material stay the same; examples - popping popcorn, phase changes
What is a physical property?
Properties that can be observed or measured without changing a substance
What is a chemical change?
A change that occurs when a substance reacts and forms one or more new substances;
examples - rusting of iron; mixing baking soda and vinegar to get carbon dioxide
What is a chemical property?
Describe matter based on its ability to change into new matter with different properties. These properties can only be observed during a chemical change.
How is the periodic table arranged? What do the properties of the elements do when the periodic table is set up this way?
Periodic table is arranged by increasing atomic number (# of protons). The properties of elements repeat when the table is set up this way.
What does the atomic number of an element tell you about its structure/"ingredients"?
The atomic number also tells you the number of protons in an element's nucleus.
Label the information you can collect from an element's "box" on the periodic table.
What does it mean when elements are in the same group?
Each column in periodic table is a group, elements in the same group have similar properties.
What are the properties of metals?
Good conductors of heat/electricity; solids at room temperature; malleable (can be flattened into sheets); ductile (can be made into wires).
What are the properties of non-metals?
Poor conductors of heat/electricity; mostly gases at room temperature; low boiling points.
What are the properties of metalloids?
Share the properties of metals and nonmetals.
How do you read a chemical compound like H2O ?
It has 2 atoms of hydrogen and 1 atom of oxygen; the subscript number AFTER the element tells you how many atoms of that element are present.
What is a force?
A push or a pull that will change an object's speed or the direction of its motion.
What is friction?
A force that opposes the motion of objects that touch as they move past each other.
What do balanced forces do?
Cause NO change in an object's motion.
What do unbalanced forces do?
Cause a change in an object's motion.
What is Newton's 1st Laws of Motion?
An object in motion will stay in motion unless acted on by an outside force. An object at rest will
remain at rest unless acted on by an outside force. (Law of Inertia) Example: on a bus, a force is applied to the bus, but not you, so the bus stops, but you were in motion, so you continue in motion until an unbalanced force (seat in front of you stops your motion).
How can you calculate net force when forces act in the opposite directions?
You subtract them.
What is Newton's 2nd law of motion?
The amount of acceleration of an object is equal to the force acting on it divided by the object's mass.
a= F ÷ m. Example: it takes more force to accelerate a full shopping cart (more mass) than an empty shopping cart (less mass).
What is Newton's 3rd law of motion?
For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. Example: When catching a ball, you apply a force to the ball and the ball applies a force back on you.
When two objects collide, what happens to the objects' energy?
When two objects collide (like a butterfly and a bumble bee both moving at the same speed), the bumble bee will transfer its KE to the butterfly since the bee has more mass. Energy is not created or destroyed, just transferred from the bumble bee to the butterfly.
What is a net force?
Net force is the TOTAL forces (in all directions) acting on an object. If net force = 0, the object will not change what it is doing!
How can you calculate net force when forces act in the same direction?
You can add them.
What is inertia?
Is the tendency of an object to resist a change in motion. If it is moving, it will keep moving
unless acted on by a force, and if it is stopped (at rest) it will remain that way until a force acts upon it.
What is kinetic energy? What variables affect an object's kinetic energy?
Is moving energy. This is affected by an object's mass and its speed.
What is potential energy? What variables affect an object's gravitational potential energy?
Stored due to an object's position. Gravitational potential energy is caused by the pull of gravity. The amount of potential energy an object has is dependent upon its mass, the pull of gravity, and position (height).
What is velocity?
Is speed AND direction of travel.
What is acceleration?
Change in an object's motion (speed or direction). a= F ÷ m ( Is equal to the force on an object divided by its mass.)
How can we calculate speed?
Rate that measures the distance an object travels in an amount of time it takes to make the trip. S=d/t
What does the slope of a distance-time graph tell you about an object? How can you know which object is fastest/slowest by looking at the graph?
Tells you the speed of an object. The object is the steepest slope has the fastest speed.
What is the law of conservation of energy?
Energy cannot be created or destroyed, only transferred between objects or transformed into other forms.
What is a medium?
A substance through which energy moves or is carried.
What does a sound wave carry?
Carries mechanical ENERGY.
How does sound energy travel through matter?
By a vibration through a medium.
What word do we use to describe the loudness of a sound? How does this change when a sound gets even louder?
The word we use to describe the strength/ENERGY of a sound is amplitude (loudness). As the sound gets louder, the amplitude increases.
What does a light wave carry?
Electromagnetic (EM) ENERGY.
How does a light wave travel? Does it need a medium?
Travels via electromagnetic waves that do not need a medium.
What does reflect mean?
Wave energy strikes a surface and bounces back.
What does absorb mean?
Energy is taken into a medium and does not escape.
What does transmit mean?
Energy is sent or carried through a medium from one place to another.
Is thermal (heat) energy matter? Why or why not?
Thermal (heat) energy is NOT matter. It does not have mass and/or volume.
When a cold object and a hot object touch, which direction will the thermal energy move?
Thermal (heat) energy always moves from the hotter matter to the colder matter.
What is the term used when objects reach the same temperature?
What is conduction?
Transfer of heat by direct contact. The energy is passed from one molecule to the next. No matter moves its position.
What is convection?
Transfer of heat by currents within a fluid. The energy is carried by the moving molecules of liquid or gas. Matter moves.
What is radiation?
Transfer of thermal energy by electromagnetic waves. No matter is needed, the energy "jumps" on its own.
What is an insulator?
A material that blocks or reduces the flow of heat, electricity, or sound.
Examples: cotton, wool
What is a conductor?
A material that allows heat, sound or electricity to pass through it easily.
Examples: metals such as copper, gold, silver
What are the four major layers of the Earth from outermost to innermost? Which do we live on?
Crust, mantle, outer core, inner core. We live on the crust.
What is erosion? Give an real life example of erosion.
Soil, rock, or land being worn away by the elements. (Mountain wearing over time)
What is plate tectonics?
Theory that explains why earth's crust move slowly across and under the surface.
What is continental drift?
Theory that the continents are slowly moving across the surface.
What action in the mantle is causing the plates to move?
Convection currents in the mantle are causing the plates to move.
List 3 pieces of evidence that help support the theory of continental drift.
Puzzle pieces, fossil evidence, seafloor spreading/mid-ocean ridge.
Where are earthquakes most likely to happen on Earth?
At transform plate boundaries where faults are created.
What causes an earthquake?
Plate tectonics cause earthquakes. The moving of the plates.
What are the three types of plate boundaries?
Divergent, convergent, transform.
What is a divergent plate boundary?
Plates spread apart.
What is a convergent plate boundary?
Plates come together.
What is a transform plate boundary?
Plates slide past each other.
How is new crust formed on Earth? How is old crust recycled?
Convergent and divergent plate boundaries. Old crust is recycled at convergent when it sinks into the mantle.
What is the estimated age of Earth?
4.6 billion years old.
What are some major events that have occurred in Earth's history?
Big Bang, first life, first plants on earth, dinosaurs, first mammals, dinosaurs extinct, humans. Humans fall at the very end.
When looking at a sample of Earth's crust broken into layers, what can you tell about their age? What can they tell you about how the Earth was like long ago by their order, depth, and fossil contents?
How deep it is. By the order you can tell which organisms came first, and how old the earth is.
How do we know that the Earth has always been changing?
Continental drift, plate tectonics, and fossil evidence.
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