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50 terms

Sci 8 Obj 3 - Properties of Matter

Texas TAKS Science 8 Objective 3 wrh bonham
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Matter
anything that has mass and occupies space. All matter is made up of elements, compounds or a mixture of elements and compounds
Mass
can be measured with a triple beam balance
Volume
can be measured by l x w x h or a graduated cylinder
Solid
a state of matter with a defiant shape and volume
Liquid
a state of matter with no defiant shape but a defiant volume
Gas
a state of matter with no defiant shaper or volume
Physical change
a change in the states of matter
Chemical Change
a change in the bonds between the atoms of compounds
Atom
the smallest particle of an element. In their stable state atoms are neutral, in that6 they have the same number of positive protons as they do negative electrons
Element
a particle that is made up of two or more atoms (O2)
Nucleus
the center of an atom that contains protons with a positive charge and neutral neutrons
Protons
is a subatomic particle with an electrical charge of +1
Neutron
is a subatomic particle located in the center of the atom, with no charge
Electron
is a subatomic particle with an electrical change of -1 found outside of the nucleus
Valence electrons
the outermost electrons in an atom
Chemical symbol
an abbreviation of the name of an element
Atomic number
the number of protons in the nucleus of the atom
Mass number
the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of the atom
Periodic table
an arrangement of elements in a table according tot their atomic numbers and physical properties
Group
a set of elements in one column in the periodic table. Elements in the same group have similar properties
Family
a set of elements in one row in the periodic table. These elements with similar energy levels
Ion
an atom that has gained or lost electrons which gives it a charge
Isotope
an element contains the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons
Conductor
the movement of electricity through matter
Malleable
the ability to bend, able to be shaped or formed
Metal
a category of elements characterized by a shiny surface, the ability to be easily shaped, and high conductivity of electricity and heat.
Alkali metals
are metals with only one valence electron (group 1)
Alkaline metals
are metals with two valence electrons (group 2)
Transition metals
elements that have valance electrons at two different energy levels (groups 3-12)
Non metals
a category of elements characterized by a brittle nature, little to no luster, and poor conductivity of electricity and heat.
Metalloid
a category of elements that share some properties with metals and some with non metals, along the zigzag line on the periodic table of elements
Noble gases
a category of elements that have full valence electrons
Specific heat
a physical property of a substance, the amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost for 1 gram of the substance to change its temperature by 1 oC
Physical properties
characteristics that can be observed or measured without changing the identity of matter, color, smell, freezing point, boiling point, melting point, infra-red spectrum, attraction (paramagnetic) or repulsion (diamagnetic) to magnets, opacity, viscosity and density.
Chemical properties
characteristics that describe how a substance behaves in chemical reactions, heat of combustion, precipitate, reactivity with water, PH, and electromotive force
Mixture
formed when the atoms of two or more elements combine but do not form a new substance (sugar water)
Molecule
made of two or more of the same element
Compound
formed when the atoms of two or more elements combine to form a new substance (NaCl)
Chemical formula
the types of elements and numbers of atoms of each element in a substance (H2CO3)
Chemical reaction
one or more substances change to produce one or more new substances with different chemical properties
Endothermic
A chemical reaction that takes in energy during reaction
Exothermic
a chemical reaction that released energy during reaction
Precipitate
a solid material that can form during a chemical reaction
Chemical equation
represents a chemical reaction
Reactants
the substance or compound that gets consumed during a chemical equation or reaction
Products
the substance or compound at the end of a chemical equation or reaction
Coefficients
The number before the substance or compound (5NaCl)
Subscripts
the number after the substance or compound (h2o)
Law of Conservation of Mass
states that no mass can be created or destroyed in a chemical reaction
Chemical energy
energy that is stored in chemical bonds