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Arts and Humanities
History of the Americas
US History Final Exam
Terms in this set (85)
First common man elected president
The act of cancelling something.
The leaving of a group of a larger entity, especially in politics.
The practice of appointing people to government jobs on the basis of party loyalty.
Indian Removal Act
Allocated funds to relocate all Natives west.
Formed to oppose Jackson. They had 3 candidates run.
Martin Van Buren
Won the election of 1836
William Henry Harrison
Won the election of 1840 and then gave a speech in bad weather and died(shortest term)
VP to Harrison. Then becomes president when Harrison dies.
Second Great Awakening
1800's movement that promoted the belief that all people could attain salvation be readmitting God into their lives.
Founded the mormon Church. Was killed.
Social movement against the consumption of alcohol.
Leader in Education Reforms, and started the MA state educational board.
Seneca Falls Convention
Convention to proceed on giving women rights.
John Louis O'Sullivan
Gave the term to the Manifest Destiny.
German immigrant who received land grant for 50,000 acres from the Spanish Governor.
Name given to 87 western settlers who got trapped in the Sierra Nevada Mountains. They resorted to cannibalism.
Treaty of Fort Laramie
U.S. government and 8 native tribes negotiated a treaty stating that all lands on the Great Plains would belong to the natives forever Absolute lie
Took over control of the mormon church after Joseph Smith was killed and move the Church to Utah
Spanish speaking settlers of Southern Texas who refused to move north in fear of native attacks.
Americans invited into Texas who needed to promise to obey Mexican rule & bring settlers to the territory.
First and most successful empresario.
Denounced the Mexican Constitution and declared himself dictator.
Former governor of Tennessee and experienced military leader.
180 texans led by William Travis barricaded themselves in the Alamo and were overran and killed by Mexican forces. Became the Battle cry for the war.
Battle of San Jacinto
Houston and his troops launched a surprise attack and defeated the Mexican forces.Texans captured Santa Anna and forced him to sign a treaty recognizing Texas (Independent).
James K. Polk
Won the election of 1844. President that helped annex Texas and the Oregon territory.
General that led the army against the Mexican forces. Continued to succeed in battles. Was replaced because Polk feared he will win the next election with his achievements.
American general who led the forces into Mexico City & captured the Mexican capital
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Officially entitled the Treaty of Peace, Friendship, Limits and Settlement between the United States of America and the Mexican Republic, signed on February 2, 1848
Democrat Representative from PA. who proposed that in any territory the U.S. gained in Mexican War "Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall ever exist."
to counter Wilmot Proviso. He argued that the states owned the territories and Congress had no right to ban slavery.
The idea that people from states have the choice to vote for what they want in their state.
California Gold Rush
The discovery of gold brought thousands of new settlers to CA. The miners were given the name of the 49ers. The gold rush forced the nation to debate the Slavery issue once again.
Compromise of 1850
Divided the large compromise into smaller bills for Senate approval. Fall 1850: Compromise was passed but was not a permanent solution.
Uncle Tom's Cabin
Harriet Beecher Stowe: Author who published a book which presented slaves as real people imprisoned in a dreadful situation. Her account changed the Northern outlook of slavery. Southerners tried to have the novel banned and accused Stowe of writing falsehoods.
Fugitive Slave Act
If a African American is accused of being a slave, then they were believed to be, even if they are falsely accused. Then would be placed back on a plantation.
Most famous conductor and former slave who continually risked her life to help slaves escape. Southerners placed a bounty on her. She was never caught or captured while making many visits into the South.
Kansas Nebraska Act
Stephen Douglas proposed that 2 territories should be organized west of Missouri and that popular sovereignty would decide the issue of slavery. (Kansas and Nebraska). Realized that the Missouri Compromise would have to be repealed. Angered northerners. By opening this issue, he set the nation on the road to Civil War. Act was passed by Congress in May 1854.
1855: Thousands of Missourians called " Border Ruffians" came into Kansas and illegally voted in the state election. They voted in a Pro Slavery Government. 1856: Kansas became the scene of territorial civil war.
Democratic nominee. Wins presidential election of 1835 and was the only PA president.
Dred Scott Decision
Slave who sued his master. He was overruled and lost because the Supreme Court claimed that slaves did not have the same rights as a white man.
Illinois senator who was the democrat nominee. He believed in popular sovereignty and proposed the Kansas Nebraska Act.Was known as the little giant.
John Brown's Raid
John Brown believed he was sent by God to deprive America of slavery. Raided an arsenal at Harper's Ferry. He failed and was captured and killed.
President of the Confederacy.
Robert E. Lee
Was one of the Best U.S. Generals. Joined the Confederacy after his home state 'Virginia' decided to secede from the Union.
Took control of the Union army in the east after McDowell's loss at 'The First Battle of Bullrun'. McClellan being too cautious had led the Union to have mass casualties, forcing Lincoln too recall him back to Washington.
Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson
Led the Confederates for the 'First Battle of Bullrun'.
Led the Union Navy, closed the port of Mobile, Alabama
Hooker failed to stop Lee so Lincoln removed him from Command and replaced him with General George Meade. Meade and his troops headed north to stop Lee. Some of Lee's troops went to Gettysburg. There they met Union Cavalry On July 1, 1863, Confederate troops pushed the Union troops out of Gettysburg and into the hills to the south.
Ulysses S. Grant
In February 1862, Union General Ulysses Grant began his campaign. Grant advanced down the Tennessee River until the Confederates launched a surprise attack at Shiloh.
John Wilkes Booth
On April 14, 1865, John Wilkes Booth shot and killed Lincoln at Ford's Theater.
President from 1861 to 1864 where he had won his re-election.
Federal fort in SC. Was attacked by confederates and was forced to surrender due to lack of supplies. Marked the beginning of the civil war.
1st Battle of Bull Run
Confederates led by General Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson. Union Commander Irwin McDowell had his troops retreat when he had seen the Confederate reinforcements. The retreat had turned into panic for the Union troops.
The Bloodiest one day battle of the war. McClellan had inflicted so many Southern Casualties, Lee was forced to retreat to Virginia. This was an important win for the Union as if the Confederacy had won this battle they would have gained international recognition and support. This Southern defeat also convinced Lincoln that it was time to end slavery.
In June 1863, Lee and his troops invaded Pennsylvania. Hooker failed to stop Lee so Lincoln removed Hooker and replaced him with General George Meade. Meade and his troops headed north to stop Lee.Some of Lee's troops went to Gettysburg.There they met Union CavalryOn July 1, 1863, Confederate troops pushed the Union troops out of Gettysburg and into the hills to the south.
Grant and the Union troops cut off food and supplied going into Vicksburg.They also bombarded the city until the Confederates surrendered on July 4, 1863.
On April 9th, 1865 General Lee had surrendered to General Grant in the Appomattox Courthouse, where the terms of the surrender had been that the U.S. would not prosecute Confederate soldiers for treason.
A Union warship intercepted the Trent ,the British ship that the two men were on and arrested them. Britain demanded the release of the two men and threatened war.
The Union implemented the Anaconda Plan. Proposed by Winfield Scott Included a blockage of Southern ports and sending gun boats down the Mississippi River to divide the Confederacy.
This decree had stated that all enslaved persons be set free of January 1st, 1863.
Force led by George Pickett. Confederate troops crossing open farmland to towards the ridge where Union forces stood. In less than ½ a hour of fighting, the Union forces had used cannons and guns to inflict 7,000 Confederate Casualties.
March to Sea
Richard Sherman, a Union General, who cut a path of destruction through Georgia till he reached the sea
Banned slavery in the U.S., Passed on January 31, 1865.
Plans to rebuild the South after the Civil War.
Prevent the Confederate leaders from returning to power after the war. The Republican party to become powerful in the South. Get the Federal government to help African Americans achieve political equality by guaranteeing them the right to vote in the South.
Job was to feed and clothe war refugees in the South using a surplus of army supplies.
Became president after Abraham Lincoln's Assassination. Johnson agreed with Lincoln that a moderate policy was needed to bring the South back to the Union.
¨Granted citizenship to all persons born or naturalized in the U.S."
Military Reconstruction Act
Divided the former Confederate states into 5 military districts (except Tennessee) . Each former Confederate state had to hold another Constitutional convention to write a constitution that Congress would accept.
Secretary of War who agreed to the Radical Republican Reconstruction plan. Was fired by Andrew Johnston.
To formally charge a public official with misconduct in office
Name given to northerners who moved to the south after the civil war and the republicans supporters
Ku Klux Klan
Largest terrorizing group to African Americans and white supporters. Goal was to drive out the Union troops and carpetbaggers, regain control of the South for the Democratic Party, and rid the U.S of the "Black Republic."
White Southerners who worked with the Republicans, and supported the Reconstruction.
A scandal that involved a group of government officials, and distillers in St. Louis who cheated the government by filing false tax reports.
Rutherford B. Hayes
Republican nominee. Wanted to end Radical Reconstruction.
Compromise of 1877
Believed it was made to help Southern Democrats vote for Hayes. The compromise to pull federal soldiers out of the South.
Farmers who would pay a share of their crops to cover their rent, and farming costs.
Towns in the west that would grow almost overnight into big cities over the find of gold or and other precious metals
It was the long trail that many families had go through to reach the west and find a new life. They had to plan for the winters and work around them because if not they would end up like the Donner Party.
The federal gov't passed this to help settle the Great Plains in 1862. For $10, a settler could file for a homestead, or a tract of public land available for settlement.The homesteader could get up to 160 acres of public land and could receive title of it after living there five years.
Battle of Little Bighorn
occurred in 1876 and is commonly referred to as "Custer's Last Stand". The battle took place between the U.S. Cavalry and northern tribe Indians, including the Cheyenne, Sioux, and Arapaho.
To be absorbed into American society as landowners and citizens.
Recommended textbook explanations
HMH Social Studies American History: Reconstruction to the Present Guided Reading Workbook
The Americans: Reconstruction to the 21st Century (California Edition)
Gerald A. Danzer, J. Jorge Klor de Alva, Larry S. Krieger, Louis E. Wilson, Nancy Woloch
United States History: Beginnings to 1877
Deborah Gray White, William Deverell
The American Vision: Modern Times California Edition
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