Language and Age Theories
Terms in this set (12)
Penelope Eckert (1998)
Age is not just defined by chronological age, but also by biological and social age. People's language is affected by important life events. Therefore can assume all people of a certain age range speak the same.
Jenny Cheshire (1987)
Adult and child language can change due to important life events such as marriage, childbirth and change in social relations.
Douglas S. Bigham (2012)
'Emerging adulthood' is the period of time where important life events occur at 18-25 years old.
West Yorkshire school. Asked teens to recall words from childhood. Lexis surrounded games such as 'Kerby' and 'Tag'. As teenagers, they said their vocab centred around an informal register, slang, and dialect. A common theme of speech was relationships. Slang was thought of as the vernacular, with their slang being specifically understood by their generation only.
Common features of teenspeak: Slang; Irregular turn taking; Verbal duelling; overlaps; teasing and name calling; indistinct articulation; taboo and language mixing.
Penelope Eckert (2003)
Slang is used to connect an individual to youth culture and to set themselves off from other generations. Typical features include 'okay', 'like' rising inflection and multiple negation.
Ignacio Palacios (2011)
Teenagers use negatives more than adults, are more direct and are not afraid of potential FTAs. Negative used such as 'nah', 'nope' and 'dunno' as well as multiple negation and use of 'never'.
Unni Berland (1997)
Social Class is important.
'Innit' used more by working class and 'yeah' used more by middle class.
Christopher Odato (2013)
Non-standard syntactic use of 'Like' being seen in Children as young as Four. Girls seem to develop on to using 'Like' in more syntactic positions faster than boys. Claims there is an element of children copying adults.
Thirty 15 year olds. Found examples of features slipping into speech such as 'cba' and 'wtf' both including expletives.
Instagram research with children aged 8-12. Found text-talk language features used extensively. Technology's influence may be diminishing or passed on to younger children.
Zimmerman and West (2009)
Argues Graffiti, music, media and communication are influences on teen-speak.
Vivian de Klerk (2005)
Younger people have the freedom to challenge linguistic norms. They seek to establish new identities. Patterns of speech formed by parents are eroded by patterns in peer group. Need to be seen as modern and cool to appear as a distinct peer group.