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Seleucid king who came to power in 175 BCE and took the title Epiphanes ("God Manifest"). Antiochus IV brutally forced Hellenism on the Jewish people and desecrated the Jerusalem temple, which prompted the Maccabean Revolt. Many scholars see the book of Daniel as a reflection of Jewish persecution under Antiochus IV.
A collection of Jewish religious books that include various literary genres and give insight into the time between the testaments. The word "apocrypha" means "hidden texts." Though Jews never considered them Scripture, some Christian groups came to regard these texts as part of the Christian canon and labeled them "deuterocanonical" because they became canonical later than the other writings. The Apocrypha includes 1, 2, and 3 Maccabees, Judith, Additions to Daniel and Esther, the Wisdom of Ben Sira, and 4 Ezra.
Worship of the Roman emperor as a god, which became increasingly important in the Roman Empire after the death of Julius Caesar in 44 BCE. While initially emperors were worshipped only after their deaths, some Roman emperors eventually demanded worship while they were still living. Emperor worship was closely associated with political loyalty to the Roman Empire.
A sect of Judean Jews in the first century CE who believed that in the afterlife, a person's soul would experience reward or punishment based on how a person lived. Accordingly, they strove to live pure and righteous lives without the distractions of wealth and, in some cases, marriage. They criticized the temple establishment for being corrupt and often isolated themselves into their own communities.
A sect of Judean Jews that probably emerged in the second century BCE who strove to embody the virtuous life the Mosaic law prescribed so that they would be rewarded for their faithfulness in the afterlife with bodily resurrection. They were skillful interpreters of Scripture and revered the oral traditions. After the destruction of the Jerusalem temple in 70 CE, the Pharisees morphed into rabbinic Judaism.