A&P I Chapter 1
Study Objectives for Chapter 1 Organization of the Body
Terms in this set (68)
Know the organ systems
(CRIMESUNRDL) Cardiovascular System, Respiratory System, Integumentary System, Muscular System, Endocrine System, Skeletal System Urinary System, Nervous System, Reproductive System, Digestive System, Lymphatic System,
Basic Function of the Cardiovascular System
Blood Vessels transport blood, which carries oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, wastes, etc. The heart pumps blood
Basic Function of the Respiratory System
Keeps blood constantly supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide. The gaseous exchanges occur through the walls of the air sacs of the lungs.
Basic Function of the Integumentary System
Forms the external body covering and protects deeper tissues from injury. Synthesizes Vitamin D and houses cutaneous (pain, pressure) receptors and sweat.
Basic Function of the Muscular System
Allows manipulation of the environment, locomotion, and facial expression. Maintains posture and produces heat.
Basic Function of the Endocrine System
Glands secrete hormones that regulate processes such as growth, reproduction and nutrient use (metabolism) by body cells
Basic Function of the Skeletal System
Protects and Supports body organs and provides a framework the muscles use to cause movement. Blood cells are formed within the bones. Bones store minerals
Basic Function of the Urinary System
Eliminates nitrogenous wastes from the body. Regulates water, electrolytes and acid based balance of the blood.
Basic Function of the Nervous System
As the fast acting control system of the body it responds to internal and external changes by activating appropriate muscles and glands
Basic Function of the Reproductive System
Overall function is the production of offspring. Testes produce sperm and male sex hormones and male ducts and glands aid in the delivery of sperm to the female reproductive tract. Ovaries produce eggs and female sex hormones. The remaining female structures serve as sites for fertilization and development of the fetus. Mammary glands of female breasts produce milk to nourish the newborn.
Basic Function of the Digestive System
Breaks down food into absorbable units that enter the blood for distribution to body cells. Indigestible foodstuffs are eliminated as feces
Basic Function of the Lymphatic System
Immunity: picks up fluid leaked by blood vessels and returns it to the blood. Disposes of debris in the lymphatic stream. Houses white blood cells (lymphocytes) involved in immunity. The immune response mounts the attack against foreign substances within the body.
Understand the levels of structural organization
Chemical Level (Atoms combine to form molecules), Cellular level (Cells are made up of molecules), Tissue level (Tissues consist of similar types of cells), Organ level (Organs are made up of different types of tissues) Organ system level (organ systems consist of different organs that work together closely) Organismal level (the human organism is made up of many organ systems
Understand the general mechanisms of homeostatic control
Communication is accomplished chiefly by the nervous and endocrine systems which use neural electrical impulses or bloodborne hormones as information systems. Three components that work together: receptor(s), control center, and effector(s).
some type of sensor that monitors the environment and responds to changes called stimuli by sending information to the control center
determines the set point, which is the level or range at which a variable is to be maintained. It determines the appropriate response or course of action.
provides the means for the control center's response (output) to the stimulus. The results of the response then feed back to influence the effect of the stimulus, either reducing it (in negative feedback) so that the whole control process is shut off, or enhancing it (in positive feedback) so that the whole process continues at an even faster rate.
Negative feedback mechanisms
The output shuts off the original effect of the stimulus or reduces it's intensity. These mechanisms cause the variable to change in a direction opposite to that of the initial change, returning it to its "ideal" value; thus the name "negative" feedback mechanisms.
Positive feedback Mechanisms
the result or response enhances the original stimulus so that the response is accelerated. This feedback mechanism is "positive" because the change that results proceeds in the same direction as the initial change causing the variable to deviate further and further from its original value or range. ie childbirth or formation of platelet plug in blood clotting.
the body is erect, facing forward, feet slightly apart, arms at sides with palms forward
toward the head end or upper part of a structure or the body; above
away from the head end or toward the lower part of a structure or the body; below
toward or at the front of the body; in front of
toward or at the back of the body; behind
toward or at the front of the body; in front of
toward or at the back of the body: behind
toward or at the midline of the body; on the inner side of
away from the midline of the body; on the outer side of
between a more medial and more lateral structure
closer to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk
farther from the origin of a body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk
toward or at the body surface
away from the body surface; more internal
frontal, orbital, nasal, oral and mental
makes up the main axis of our body, includes the head, neck and trunk.
consists of the appendages or limbs, which are attached to the body's axis.
Sternal, axillary and mammary
acromial, brachial, antecubital, olecranial, antebrachial (forearm), carpal (wrist)
(hand), pollex metacarpal, palmar, digital
coxal(hip), femoral(thigh), patellar(knee) popliteal, crural(leg) sural (calf) Fibular or peroneal
(foot) tarsal(ankle) calcaneal, metatarsal, digital, planta, hallux
otic, occipital (back of the head),
(dorsal) scapular, vertebral, lumbar, sacral, gluteal, and perineal
sagital plane, median plane, midsagittal plane, and parasagittal plane, frontal plane (coronal plane), transverse (horizontal plane) oblique sections
vertical plane that divides the body into right and left parts
midsagittal plane, a sagittal plane that lies exactly in the midline
(coronal plane) lie vertically, divide the body into anterior and posterior parts
transverse or horizontal plane
runs horizontally from right to left, dividing the body into superior and inferior parts
dorsal body cavity
protects the fragile nervous system organs. Has two subdivisions The cranial cavity in the skull, encases the brain and the vertebral or spinal cavity which runs within the bony vertebral columns and encloses the delicate spinal cord.
ventral body cavity
more anterior and larger of the closed body cavities. Two subdivisions are the thoracic cavity and the abdominopelvic cavity.
the internal organs of the ventral body cavity
contains heart and lungs, superior mediastinum, pleural cavity, and the pericardial cavity within the mediastinum
contains digestive viscera
contains urinary bladder, reproductive organs, and recturm
Membranes in the ventral body cavity
double layered Serous membrane, consists of parietal serosa and visceral serosa
parie = wall. The part of the membrane lining the cavity walls. The outer layer.
covers internal organs (viscera)
Right upper quadrant
Right lower quadrant
left upper quadrant
left lower quadrant
small intestines, descending colon