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The name of Wegner's super continent


The large cluster of population in the northeastern United States is known as


A bridge language of national politics, commerce, and trade is known as a

Lingua franca

Geography is concerned with providing a spatial perspective on the world


Water covers about _____ percent of the Earth's surface


The population of the world is ---- billion

< 7 billion

Transition zones mark the places where geographic realms meet


The ratio of distance on a map to actual ground distance is known as

The map scale

Which water body is surrounded by a geologically-active Ring of Fire

The Pacific Ocean

The process by which a tectonic plate consisting of less heavy rock rides up over a heavier plate is known


The three principles of spatial interaction are

complementarity - two places through an exchange of goods, can specifically satisfy each other's demands. One area has a surplus of an item demanded by a second area. Trade is great and coutries get along well... example is Belguim and the netherlands
transferability-- The ease with which a commodity may be transported or the capacity to move a good at a bearable cost
intervening opportunity --- The presence of a nearer source of supply or opportunity that acts to diminish the attractiveness of more distant sources and sites.

When a state seeks to acquire the neighboring territory that is home to ethnically similar people and territory on the other side of its international border by appealing to a concentrated group, this action is termed:


Europe's relative location

is one of centrality within the land hemisphere

The process whereby regions within a state demand and gain political strength and growing autonomy is known as:


The only European country with coastlines on the Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea, and the North Sea is:


The term Balkanization refers to

the division and fragmentation of the southern portion of Eastern Europe

The administrative headquarters of the European Union is located in:


Transferability is a spatial interaction concept related to the costs of overcoming the distance between two places.


A country's leading urban center that is disproportionately large and exceptionally expressive of national feelings, such as Paris is to France, is known as the country's:

primate city

To a considerable degree, Belgium and the Netherlands are in a position of economic complementarity.


The principle of -------------confirms that increasing distances between places tend to reduce the interactions between them.

Distance decay

Distance decay effects are greatest between Moscow and:


Persistently frozen ground is known as:


Which Russian republic fought a (still unresolved) war for independence from Moscow during the 1990s:


The population of Russia is

shrinking by more than 750,000 per year

The north-south mountain range in the west-central USSR that is often regarded as the "boundary" between Europe and Asia is called the Ural Mountains.


The movement of the headquarters of the Russian Empire to St. Petersburg allowed that city to become a(n):

forward capital

Under the Soviet economic system, assignment by Moscow, rather than market forces, controlled the development of places.


The geopolitical theory that indicates that rimland is the key to control of the world was forwarded by:


The geopolitical theory that indicates the Eurasian heartland is the key to control of the world was forwarded by:


The two leading language groups in Canada are:

French and English

The "Kuwait of North America" is the nickname of:


The North American Free Trade Agreement:

Includes the United States, Canada and Mexico

The North American region that has undergone the most change in recent decades is:

The south

The correct historical sequence of the intrametropolitan urban growth model is the Walking-Horsecar, Recreational Automobile, Electric Streetcar, and Freeway Eras.


The habitable zone of permanent settlement of a country is known as its:


Which ethnic group does not fit with the area identified?

Hispanics and Oregon

The three stages in the development of twentieth-century Canada are the Frontier-Staples Era, the Era of Industrial Capitalism, and the Era of Global Capitalism.


Which of the following States is the likeliest place for the further development of ethanol and other biofuel production?


A continental climate is most likely to be found in:


A narrow strip of land connecting two larger land bodies is known as a(n):


A maquiladora is:

a foreign-owned factory in northern Mexico that assembles duty-free goods

Transculturation is most closely associated with the shaping of cultural traits in:


During their period of colonial domination, the Spanish forced much of Mexico's Amerindian population to relocate to urban settlements.


The Central American country where English is spoken, but where Spanish will eventually become the predominant language is:


The most important crop raised in Cuba before the fall of the Soviet Union was:


Central America, as defined by geographers, is:

a region within Middle America lying between Mexico and Colombia

Which of the following does not lie in the Euro-Amerindian Mainland?

Dominican Republic

As a group, the islands of Cuba, Hispaniola, Jamaica, and Puerto Rico constitute:

the Greater Antilles

4 Major Clusters

East Asia, South Asia, Europe, and Eastern North America

Field that studies spaital aspects of human cultures

Cultural Geography

the composite of human imprints on the earth's surface

Cultural Landscapes

The making of maps


Criteria of Geographic Regions

area, boundaries, location, homogeneity, regions as systems

Absolute Location

providing the latitude/longitudinal extent of the region with respect to the earth's gridelines

Relative location

location with references to other regions

Formal Regions

when regions display a measurable and often visible internal homogeneity


giving up some soveriengty for the greater good

Spatial Systems

the components and interactions of a functional region = areal extent of those interactions


"country behind" a term that applies to a surrounding area served by an urban center. That center is the focus of goods/services produced for hinterland and urban center

Functional region

a region marked less by its sameness than by its dynamic internal structure; usually focuses on a central node also called nodal region or focal region

natural landscape

array of landforms constituting earths' surface (mountains, hills, plains, plateaus/ and the physical features that mark them (water bodies, soils, vegetation)

Continental drift

slow movement of continents controlled by the processes associated with plate tectonics

Pacific Ring of fire

zone of curstal instability along tectonic plate boundaries, marked by earthquakes and volcanic activity that ring the pacific ocean basin


proportion of country's pop living in urban places
- process of movement of people into towns and cities
- expansion of city absorbing rural countryside into suburbs

An altiplano is a

a plain high in the Andes

The Treaty of Tordesillas of 1494 stipulated that a north-south boundary was to be drawn separating the South American territories of ____________________.

Spain and Portugal

The initial stage in the evolution of an insurgent state, according to McColl, is the stage of


The "Triple Frontier" is where which of the following three countries come together?

Paraguay, Argentina, and Brazil

The informal sector of the economy includes

Where workers are undocumented and transactions are beyond the control of the government.. example - unlicensed selling of homemade goods

The final stage in the evolution of an insurgent state, according to McColl, is the stage of


The South is Brazil's most "European" region, where European languages other than Portuguese still remain in use.


Which south american country is landlocked?


In the Latin American city model, the elite residential sector contains the:

commercial and industrial spine


Providing spatial perspective of the world


A commonly used term and a geographic concept of central importance. An area on the Earth's surface marked by specific criteria


1880-1930 German geophysicist who proposed the theory of continental drift and Pangaea (supercontinent)

Pacific Ring of Fire

Zone of crustal instability along tectonic plate bboundaries, marked by earthquakes and volcanic activity, thant ring the Pacific Ocean Basin

Nature of Earth, Population

4 population areas 1. East Asia 2. South Asia (India) 3. Europe 4. Megalopolis (north america)

Language Families

Group of languages with a shared but usually distant origin --- Lingua franca is a bridge language for people to comunicate examples are English and Swahili

Central Business District (CBD)

The downtown heart of a central city; marked by high land values, a concentration of business and commerce, and the clustering of the tallest buildings


Literally, "country behind," a term that applies to a surrounding area served by an urban center. That center is the focus of goods an d services produced for its hinterland and is its dominant urban influence as well. In the case of a port city, the hinterland also includes the inland area whose trade flows through that port.


sovergn country, operating gov, recognized from a large part of the world


Richer/poorer differences ----- Biggest in south america


A vast, singular landmass consisting of most of the areas of the present-day continents. THis supercontinent began to break up more than 200 million years ago when still ongoning plate divergence and continental drift became dominant processes.

Borders of Realms


Core area

In geography, a term with several connotations. Core refers to the center, heart, or focus. The core area of a nation-state is constituted by the national heartland, the largest population cluster, the most productive region, and the part of the contry with the greatest centrality and accessibility -- probably the capital city as well -- served by the hinterland

Von Thunen

Created the concentric zone model that states that perishable goods are located near market area as well as heavy items, while crops that are able to be shipped long distances without spoiling were located farther away.

Principles of Spatial interaction

complementarity - two places through an exchange of goods, can specifically satisfy each other's demands. One area has a surplus of an item demanded by a second area. Trade is great and coutries get along well... example is Belguim and the netherlands
intervening opportunity-- The ease with which a commodity may be transported or the capacity to move a good at a bearable cost
transferability --- The presence of a nearer source of supply or opportunity that acts to diminish the attractiveness of more distant sources and sites

Europe's locational advantages

Its at the heart of the land hemisphere, maximum efficiency for contact with the rest of the world, every part of Europe is close to the sea, navigable waterways, moderate distances ---- water = cheap $ transportation


term applied to associations created by three or more states for their mutual benefit and achievement of shared objectives; a venture involving three or more states - political, economic, and/or cultural cooperation to promote shared objectives ex. European Union

Europes Supranationalism

Ex. European Union -- Supranational organization constituted by 27 European countries to further their common economic interests. Includes; Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, lituania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom


The process whereby regions within a state demand and gain political strength and growing autonomy at the expense of the central government.


A policy of cultural extension and potential political expansion by a state aimed at a community of its nationals living in a neighborhing country.

Northern vs. Southern Italy

Northern part of Italy is very industrial (main city is Milan)... the north look at people in south like hillbillies Sharp north/south contrast = Ancona line (Main city is Rome)

Primate City

A country's largest city - ranking atop the urban hierarcy - most expressive of the national culture and usually (but not always) the capital city as well

Fractured States


Soviet Union

Revolution in 1917 Vladimer Lenin (VI Lenin) SOviet identity: to replace ethnic identity by being forced to speak Russian

Russian former republic minority populations

Had 15 republics

Muslim Europe

muslim immigration is changing Europes cultural landscapes ... lack of cultural integration with immigrants... Euro societies are attempting to restrict immigration * political parties

Russian population facts

Decreasing, and less than half the pop of the US


Permanently frozen water in the near-surface soil and bedrock of cold environments, producing the effect of completely frozen ground. Surface can thaw during brief warm season


The treeless plain that lies along the Arctic shore in northernmost Russia and Canada, whose vegetation consists of mosses, lichens and certain hardy grasses.


name for evergreen forest in n america, europe, and asia (russia) - keep their leaves all year

Forward Captial

Capital city positioned in actually or potentially contested territory, usually near an international border; it confirms the state's determination to maintain its presence in the region in contention.

Command Economy

The tightly controlled economic system of the former Soviet Union, whereby entral planners in Moscow assigned the production of particular goods to particular places, often guided more by socialist ideology than the principles of economic geography.

4 types (components) of Spatial Economic Activity

1. Primary (Raw Materials) Ex. Mining
2. Secondary (Manufacturing) Ex. Making steel
3. Tertiary (Services) ex. UPS, Fedex
4. Quarternary (Information) Ex. High tech computer programming

Primary Economic Activity

Activities engaged in the direct extraction of natural resources from the environment such as mining, fishing, lumbering, and especially agriculture.

Secondary Economic Activity

Activites that process raw materials and transform them into finished industrial products; the manufacturing sector.


Activities engaged in the collection, processing, and manipulation of information

Tertiary Economic Activity

Activities the engage in services - such as transportation, banking, retailing, education, and routine office-based jobs.


A planned techno-industrial complex (such as California's Silicon Valley) that innovates, promotes, and manufacures the products of the postindustrial informational economy.


The habitalble portions of the Earth's surface where permanent human settlements have arisen

Canadian Cities

No primate city, divided by english and french culture -- Main Street Cluster is composed of Quebec City, Montreal, Toronto, and Widsor

Main Street

Canada's dominant conurbation that is home to nearlyl two-thirds of the country's inhabitants; extends southwestward from Quebec City in the mid-St. Lawrence Valley to Windsor on the Detroit River.

Canada's Oil Sands

Alberta is known as the Kuatte of North America

Alaskan Natural Resources

mining, forests, oil, gas, and fishing

Maritime Climate

a climate much modified by oceanic influences. Typical characteristics include relatively small diurnal and seasonal temperature variation, and increased precipitation due to more moist air

Rust Belt

a term that gained poplarity in the 1980s[1] as the informal description of an area straddling the Midwestern and Northeastern United States plus small parts of the Upper South, in which local economies traditionally specialized in large scale manufacturing of finished medium to heavy consumer and industrial products, including the transportation and processing of the raw materials required for heavy industry

America's industrial core

synonymous with the manufacturing belt, now the "rust belt"

Canada's development

3 eras -- Frontier-Staples Era (<1935), Era of Industrial Capitalism (1935-1975), and Era of Global Capitalism (since 1975)

French Canada

THe southern portion of Quebec and neighboring Acadia, long lots land division system, impact of Quebec's separatisit movement (Montreal), came close to breaking (devolution)


best place to invest in making ethonal fuels is IOWA


a Caribbean island settled by Spaniards in 1493; a present day island that is divided into the Dominican Republic (Spanish) and Haiti (French).

Gridiron Layout

Central plaza/market square, around both the local church and gov. buildings were located. Surrounding st pattern was in gridiron form (squares, right angle streets) so that any insurrections by the resttled amerindians could be contained by having small military force seal off the affected blocks and then root out the troublemakers.

Greater Antilles

Cuba, Hispaniola, Jamaica, and Puerto Rico


The term given to modern industrial plants in Mexico's U.S. border zone. These foreign-owned factories assemble imported components and/or raw materials, and then export finished manufactures, mainly to the United States. Import duties are disappearing under NAFTA, bringing jops to Mexico and the advantages of low wage rates to the foreign entrepreneurs.

Land Bridge

A narrow isthmain link between two large landmasses. They are temporary features - at least in terms of geologic time - subject to appearance and disappearance as the land or sea level rises and falls.


A land bridge; a comparatively narrow link between larger bodies of land. Central America forms such a llink between Mexico and South America.

Mainland-Rimland Framework

The twofold regionalization of the Middle American realm based on its modern cultural history. The Euro-Amerindian Mainland, stretching form Mexico to Panama (minus the Caribbean coastal strip), was a self-sufficient zone dominated by hacienda land tenure. THe Euro african Rimland, consisting of that Caribbean coastal zone plus all of the Caribbean islands to the east, was the zone of the plantation that relied heavily on trade with Europe.


A Native American people who built a notable civilization in western South America in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. The center of their empire was in present-day Peru. Francisco Pizarro of Spain conquered the empire.

Andes Basin


Amazon Basin

The Amazon Basin is the part of South America drained by the Amazon River and its tributaries that drains an area of about 6,915,000 square kilometres, or roughly 40 percent of South America

Latin America City Model

The Griffin-Ford model of intraurban spaital structure in the middle American and South American realms. CBD anchors the model as the spine The Elite Residential sectors adjoin the CBD Zone of Maturity is middle class Zone of in situ accretion is modest living Zone of Peripheral squatter settlements is poor and unskilled workers homes (favelas) Zone of disamentity - poor people live in open areas anywhere!

Agglomerative Forces

Concentrating forces -- ones that bring people to the country Ex. building a factory, then gas station, housing jobs, etc

Deglomerative Forces

Dispersive forces -- ones that drive people away Ex. criminal over population


a country whose population possesses a substantial degree of cultural homogeneity and unity. The ideal form to which most nations a states aspire -- a political unity wherein the territorial state coincides with the area settled by a certain national group or people.


Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg --- started European supranationalism in 1944 (it's an economic union)

European Union

12 Original members made in 1992 - EU capital in Brussels, Belgium -- Parliament in Strasbourg, France -- and was aimed to coordinate policy among the members in three areas; economics, defence and justice and home affairs

Regions of Europe

Western- Germany, France, Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, (Alpine States) Austria, Lichtenstein, Switxerland
British Isles- (United Kingdom) Great Britain, Scotland, Wales, Ireland
Northern- (Scandinavia) Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, Estonia
Mediterranean- Italy, Spain, Greece, Cyprus, Portugal, Malta
Eastern- Poland, Lithuania, Ukraine, Romania, Croatia
*Eastern europe reaches into the russian zone of influence

Centrifugal Forces

Refer to forces that tend to divide a country Ex. religious, linguistic, ethnic, or ideological differences (Ireland, catholic protestants)

Centripetal forces

Forces that unite and bind a country together Ex. strong national culture


means to break up (as in a region) into smaller and often hostile units ex. (balkan peninsala)

Shatter Belt

A term applied to Eastern Europe by geographers to describe a zone of chronic political splintering and fracturing (balkan peninsala) its so diverse people's beliefs get in the way.




shantytown on the outskirts or even well within an urban area in Brazil

Insurgent State

Territorial embodiment of a successful guerilla movement. The establishment by antigovernment insurgents of a territorial base in which they exercise full control; thus a state within a state. Contention -- equalibrium -- counteroffensive --failedstate/newstate


A large estate owned by an individual, family, or corporation and organized to produce a cash crop. Almost all plantations were established within the tropics; in recent decades, many have been divided into smaller holdings or reorganized as cooperatives.


literally, a large state in a Spahish-speaking country. Sometimes equated with the plantation, but there are important differences between these two types of agricultureal enterprise.

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