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UWORLD Practice test 1
Terms in this set (94)
Fastest conductance in heart
Slowest conductance in heart
Feeling of lump in the throat
Disease produced in children that is not carried by parent's somatic cells
CA Dependent ADhesion molecules;
participate in Zona ADHERINS (intermediate junction) and Macula ADHERENS (desmosomes)
Post pregnancy fever, uterine tenderness, foul-smelling discharge and leuokocytosis
Endometritis from retained products of conception -- MCly Bacteroides
Ligand binding to tyrosine kinase results in:
formation of receptor DIMERS
Post nephrectomy, what does GFR become?
50% right after --> 80% after several weeks
Calcified, cystic tumor of brain
Tumor that presents with bitemporal hemianopia
Craniopharnygioma and pituitary adenoma
Schizophrenia diagnosis needs how many months?
Temporal lobe encephalitis
Acute intermittent porphyria is enzyme deficiency of what?
Porophobilinogen deaminase (uroprophyrinogen I synthase) -- porophobilinogen --> hydroxymethylbilane
mutations at different loci can produce the same phenotype
ie. Marfan's syndrome, MEN 2B, and homocystinuria can all cause marfanoid habitus
All offspring of affected females may show signs of disease
ALL female offspring of the affected father are diseased because they all had to receive his bad x chromosome ;
Either males or females of affected mothers can be affected
SONS of heterozygous mothers have a 50% chance of being affected; Fs have 50% chance of being a carrier;
no male to male
Pleural effusion from CHF
Transudate - hypocellular, protein poor, low LDH
Pleural effusion from infection, malignancy
Exudate - cellular, protein rich
Splenomegaly from hereditary spherocytosis reduces:
hemolysis (-->inc Hb), jaundice and bilirubin gallstones
Hereditary spherocytosis can lead to:
jaundice, pigmented gallstones, splenomegaly, aplastic crisis
loss of heterozygosity
patient inherits or develops a mutation in a tumor suppressor gene (ie. Rb gene), so the complementary allele must be deleted/mutated before cancer develops
Level of Na in DKA
Hyponatremia because Na decreases with increased glucose and osmotic diuresis
Nephrotoxic and ototoxic
Aminoglycosides, Vancomycin, Loops, Cisplatin
PGE1 analog --> increase production and secretion of gastric mucous barrier;
prevents NSAID-induced peptic ulcers; maintains PDA, induces labor
Fatty acids anchored to plasma membranes by
Nitroglycerin does what to veins/arteries and HR?
VENOdilates --> decreased preload --> reflex tachycardia
Deposition of hemosiderin (iron) in skin --> Hemochromatosis
"Bronze diabetes" - Cirrhosis, diabetes, skin pigmentation, CHF, testicular atrophy
Achondroplasia (FGFR inhibits chondrocyte/cartilage proliferation)
Defect in BTK tyrosine kinase
Recurrent Giardia infections
What enzyme is required by alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase?
Thiamine (this enzyme deficient in MSUD)
Tx for MSUD
high dose Thiamine
Hb Barts - 4 gene deletion - alpha- thalassemia
What secretes androgen binding protein?
ABP maintains LOCAL testosterone levels
Glucagon activates what receptor?
Gs --> AC --> cAMP
T2 sympathetic ganglion
Red sarafarin O stains what?
cartilage, mast cells
pulmonary embolis leads to what levels of O2 and CO2?
hypoxemia and respiratory alkalosis d/t V-Q mismatch
Pulmonary embolus leads to:
V/Q mismatch (embolus of ARTERY --> inc pulmonary resistance --> inc RV afterload --> RHF; sudden decreased perfusion but normal ventilation because nothing obstructing airway)
benign growth of Schwann cells
Neurofibromatosis I has what kind of genetics?
100% penetrance and variable expression
Rash from drug associated with histamine release
Red man syndrome - Vancomycin infused too rapidly
crampy abdominal pain, tenderness to palpation, bloody stool
Ischemic colitis - reduction in intestinal blood flow causes ischemia (pain out of proportion with physical findings) - cmn in elderly
N/V, hypoglycemia with starvation
acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency
GTPase - signal transduction from CM --> nucleus;
How do bile salts affect bacteria?
disrupt gram - OM
MOA of penicillin
inhibits cell wall synthesis by blocking transpeptidase cross-linking of peptidoglycan;
binds penicillin-binding proteins
What drug binds to PPAR-gamma?
Glitazones/ Thiazolidinediones (Pioglitazone. Rosiglitazone)
What's used to treat hepatic encephalopathy?
Lactulose - gut bacteria turns it into lactic acid and it can bind the excess NH3 and excrete it
hepatic encephalopathy d/t?
What's defective in Osteomalacia/Rickets?
mineralization/calcification of OSTEOID (tissue that develops into bone) --> soft bones
pain when walking, thinning of skin
Peripheral arterial disease -- atheroscerosis
What nerve loops under aortic arch?
Left recurrent laryngeal nerve (branch of vagus nerve)
All DNA viruses replicate where?
nucleus (except Poxvirus --cytosol)
All RNA viruses replicate where?
cytosol (except influenza and retrovirus -- nucleus)
How are Duchenne's and Becker's muscular dystrophies inherited?
Which is myelinated, pre or post ganglionoic fibers??
NON-bizzare delusions for over one month; non-bizzare but unlikely ie. people following me
Antigen loading onto MHC II replaces?
Marfanoid habitus in multiple diseases is an example of:
Different mutations in same genetic locus cause similar phenotypes ie. Duchennes and Becker's muscular dystrophies
How much ATP produced by anaerobic glycolysis and glycolysis in erythrocytes per glucose molecule?
2 ATP / glucose (vs. 38 in aerobic/cells with mitochondria)
S. pyogenes. What group? Hemolysis? Bacitracin?
Group A strep; Beta (complete) hemolysis; Bacitracin sensitive;
S. pyogeneS is bacitracin Sensitive
S. agalactiae. What group? Hemolysis? Bacitracin?
Group B strep; Beta (complete) hemolysis; Bacitracin resistant
S. pneumonia. Hemolysis? Optochin? Capsule? Bile?
Alpha hemolysis; Optochin sensitive; bile soluble; Quellung reaction (has capsule)
Viridian streptococci. Hemolysis? Optochin? Bile? Capsule?
Alpha hemolysis; Optochin resistant; insoluble in bile; no capsule
Uniparental disomy - 2 chromosome 15s from mother
Prader Willi syndrome
Uniparental disomy - 2 chromosome 15s from father
What receptor is on pupillary dilator muscle?
What receptors are on ciliary muscle?
Symp: Beta 2 --> relaxation --> far vision
Parasymp: M3 --> constriction --> accommodation (near vision)
What receptor affects aqueous humor secretion?
Beta 2 (that's why Beta blockers used to tx glaucoma-- they decrease aqueous humor outflow)
Chronic gastritis (Type A- fundus/body)
Autoimmune disorder characterized by AutoAntibodies to parietal cells --> pernicious Anemia and Achlorydia (decreased HCl)
decreased gastric acid (HCl);
can be caused by autoantibodies to parietal cells in chronic gastritis
What activates gastric acid secretion?
Gastrin, ACh, Histamine
Testicular mass that disappears when lay down
Transilumination of testes
Hydrocele and spematocele (vs. Testicular tumor and varicoceles)
AD syndrome featuring multiple nonmalignant hamartomas throughout the GI tract along with HYPERPIGMENTED mouth, lips, hands, genitalia;
Associated with increased risk CRC and other malignancies (SI tumor, uterine, breast, gastric, pancreatic Cas)
benign focal malformation that resembles the tissue of its origin;
associated with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome and Tuberous Sclerosis
Carcinoma vs. Sarcoma
epithelial origin vs. mesenchymal origin
enzymatic addition of methyl groups to cytosine residues in the genome, to silence the genes; methylated regions rich in cytosine-guanine dinucleotide repeats
Which COX is inducible?
COX 2 - found in inflammatory tissues
When are Aspergillomas (fungus balls) common?
after TB infections
What bacteria are capable of transformation?
SHiN - S. pneumonia, H. Influenza type B, Neisseria;
way of getting resistance
Steps of PCR
1) Denaturation - heating --> disruption of H bonds between complementary DNA strands
2) Annealing - cooling --> premade DNA primers anneal to each strand
3) Elongation - heating (RE-warming) --> DNA polymerase replicates DNA
What sinus MCCly affected in URTI?
Left Supraclavicular lymph node;
enlarged with GI cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer or lymphoproliferative disorders
Red pulp expansion
Congestion of spleen usually d/t portal HTN
Octreotide used to treat?
Somatotstatin analog that treats: Acute variceal bleeds, acromegaly, VIPoma, carcinoid tumors, Z-E sx
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