∙ Anatomy Final Review {EASY} ∙

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Identify the correct hierarchy of complexity
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Terms in this set (200)
What is the definition of oxidation?Losing electrons or gaining a bond to oxygenWhich one is not a correct pairing of monomer and polymer?Fructose-ATP, NOT: Glucose-Glycogen, Amino acid-proteins, nucleotide-nucleic acidsWhich of the following is a cationPositively charged ion with more protons than electronswhich level of protein strcuture contains alpha helix and beta sheetssecondarywhich of the following is not a nucleotide>enzyme NOT answer: atp, purines, adenosinewhich of the following fatty acids contains only single bonds in the aliphatic tailsaturated fatty acidsis flat, scaly, and provide protection to tissueSquamousWhat is the main difference between carrier proteins and channel proteins when transporting material across plasma membranecarriers use energy and is a form of active transport while channels are passivewhich doesn't affect rate of diffusion:weight of plasma membrane NOT: temperature, degree gradient, area of plasma membrane, membrane permeabilityenzyme involved in producing atp in aerobic conditions is inhibited by cyanide, what organelle is most likely affectedmitochondriaif a cell needs to release hormones produced by the ER into the extracellular space, which type of vesicular transport would it use?exocytosisa cell placed into a solution started to take in fluid and swell. The solution is:hypotonica compound with an amine acid, a carboxylic end and fuctional group isamino acidNucleotide is found in RNA but no tDNAuracilwhich of the following is correctly paired for DNAAdenine=Thyminetranscription uses DNA as a template to createmRNAwhat are the three stages of translation in protein synthesis?initiation, elongation, terminationcorrect sequence of cell cycle is:G1->S->G2->Mwhich phase of mitosis would chromosomes line up at the equatorial platemetaphaseWhich phase of mitosis would sister chromatids be pulled apartanaphaseAn individual with two different versions of a gene isheterozygous for geneif both alleles of a gene are expressed equally and phenotype of the heterozygous individual is not a blend of homozygous expressions. The gene is displayingcodominancethe definition of polygenic traits isa single phenotypic trait is controlled by multiple geneswhich of the following is not a function for epithelial tissuestransmission of signals NOT: protection, secretion, filtrationwhich of the following is not found in connective tissuesdendritic fibers not: collagenous fibers, reticular fibers, elastic fibersIdentify the parts that are present in a neuronSoma, Dendrite, Axonwhich type of muscle can a person voluntarily controlskeletalwhich type of junction allow communication between cellsgap junctionsfatty acids are stored in the form oftriglycerideswhich of the following is not part of the composition of a nucleotideglycerolwhich of the following is a weakest force in a molecule/compoundvan der Waal's forcessingle unit of a carbohydrate molecule is amonosaccharideprimary structure of proteinsequence of amino acid chainwhat are enzymesproteins that catalyze reactions without being consumedwhy is the phospholipid bilayer essential for normal cell functions and survivalbasis of selective permeability of membranesrough ER is responsible forRNA translationfollowing organelles have their own genetic material?mitochondriawhich of the following exist in a double helixDNAwhich enzyme is found in DNA replication and is responsible for incorporating complementary bases to the DNA templateDNA polymeraseWhich of the following molecule could cross the plasma membrane unassisted?Lipid soluble steroid hormone NOT: charged electrolyte, polar moleculewhich are layers in skinepidermis and dermiswhich isnt part of epidermisstratum proterozoiccell type of epidermis isstratified squamousKeratinocytes are produced in the layer ofstratum basalewhich of the following is not a function of skinnutrient exchange not answer: prevent water loss, protection, vit D synhtesisin which layer would blood vessels and glands be founddermiswhat type of gland is responsible for thermoregulationmerocrinewhich of the following skin cancers arises from stem cells but has low metastatic potentialbasal cell carcinomawhich of following is not a cell type found in normal boneosteomashaft of a long bone is known asdiaphysiswhich hormone is released when serum calcium levels are lowparathyroid hormonewhich of following would be found within central canal of compact boneartery, vein, nervewhich of following is not a mineral or compound found in the bone matrixhydroxyapatitewhich cell type is responsible for the breakdown of boneosteoclastwhat are the effects of acids on bones and the minerals contained within bonesbreakdown of bones, minerals releasedwhich of the following is not an effect of parathyroid hormoneincrease osteoblast activity. NOT:increase bone breakdown, increase osteoclast activity, increase osteoclast levels, increase reabsorption of calcium levelswhich is not an axial skeletonpectoral girdle not: calvaria, vertebral column, sternumwhich bone is the most posterior bone of the calvariaoccipitalwhat is the correct order of vertebral column from superior to inferirocerivcal->thoracic->lumbar->sacralwhich region of the cerebral column consist of 12 vertebraethoracicwhich layer of the intervertebral disc is a gel-like layer that act as a shock absorber for the vertberal columnnucleus pulposuswhat mechanism allows human head to rotatehead rests on atlas and rotates around axiswhich are true ribsfirstt 7 ribsanterior aspect of calvaria is composed ofoccipitalwhich are regions of the pelvisilium, ischium, pubisback of the pelvis is formed by which region of spinesacralwhcih of the following describes the body part moving away from the midlineabductionwhich of the following is not a structural classification of jointsplanewhich type of joint involves encasing it in a fibrous capsulesynovialwhich type of synovial joint offer the highest mobility and alow movements in three axesball and socketwhich of the following is not part of the skeletal system of the upper limbstarsalwhich bone is located on the lateral aspect of the forearmradiuswhich part of the ulna articulates with the humerusolecranonwhich is not a carpal bonehamate not: scaphoid/lunate/pisiform/calcaneaswhich is the longest and strongest bone in the bodyfemurwhich is the largest tarsal bone and forms the heelcalcaneusa single muscle cell ismyocytewhich of following is not found in thin filamentmyosinwhich of following types of muscle have voluntary controlskeletal onlywhich of the following blocks the active site of actintropomyosincalcium is released from which during skeletal muscle contractionsarcoplasmic reticulumwhich describes the contraction phase where tension changes and length stays the sameisometricwhich connective tissue creates compartments in group of musclesfasciawhat is the shape of the muscles that form sphincterscircularbell's palsy is caused by facial nerve paralysis. which of the following muscles isn't affected by this?orbicularis oculi Not: frontalis, zygomatic major, zygomatic minorwhich of the following is not a muscle of masticationfrontaliswhich muscle extends the necktrapeziuswhich nerve innervates the diaphragmphrenicintercalated disc are found between what type of cellscardiac muscle cellswhat is the effect of contracting the diaphragmincreasing the size of the thoracic cavity, creating a negative pressure within and creating inspirationwhich of the following are involved in maintaining structure of the abdominal cavityexternal abdominal oblique, internal abdominal oblique, transverse abdominalwhat is the name of the aponeurosis covering the rectus abdominus muscle?rectus sheathwhich of the following is not a posterior muscle of the shoulder?deep transverse perinealwhich of the following muscles will draw the scapula laterally and forward?serratus anteriorwhat is the function of the deltoid muscle?raising (abducting) the arm after the initial 30 degreeswhich of the following is not a rotator cuff?latissimus dorsiwhat is the function of the rotator cuff muscles?stabilization of the glenohumeral jointwhich muscle is the primary supinator muscle of the arm?bicep brachiiwhich muscle would not be affected by severing the median nerve?flexor carpi ulnariswhich of the following is an abductor of the thumb?abductor polliciswhich of the following muscle is not part of the quadriceps femoris group?gracious not: rectus femoris, vatsus lateralis, vastus medialiswhich of the following does not flex the knee?vastus intermediuswhich muscle will extend the great toe (1st digit)extensor hallucis longuswhat is the function of the flexor digitorum longusflexes phalanges of digits 2 to 5which of the following is not innervated by the tibial nerve?flexor pollicis longus not: flexor hallucis longus, soleus, gastrocnemiusnot part of PNS?brain and spinal cordtype of neuron responsible for detecting stimuli?afferent neuronwhat structure in the neuron is responsible for receiving signals from other neurons?dendritewhich neuronal organization has one axon and one dendrite?bipolarwhich type of transport utilizes dyneinfast retrogradewhich of the following are glial cells of the peripheral systemschwann cellsfunction of ependymal cells?produce cerebospinal fluidwhat is the function of the myelin sheathmaintain electrical signal, increase speed of electrical signalin order for the plasma membrane to generate a membrane potential, ions are pumped across the membrane. identify the correct ions and where they accumulate to generate a membrane potentialNa in the ECF/K in ICFwhat is the resting potential-60 to -70 mVidentify the first channels to be opened after an electrical signal reached a region of plasma membrane (e.g. Axon hillock)voltage-gated Na+ channelswhat channel when opened will cause depolarization (returning the membrane potential to -60mV) of the plasma membranevoltage-gated potassium channelwhich of the following are properties of an action potentialall or none, non decremental, irreversiblewhich neuron sends signals at synapsepresynaptic neuronwhich of the following is not an amino acid neurotransmitteracetylcholinewhich of the following is not a monoamine neurotransmitteraspartatenot signal cessation?exocytosis not:diffusion, reuptake, degradationspinal cord ends in which region?lumbarwhich regions consist of enlargements where nerve fibers form nerves that innervate the limbcervical, lumbarwhere should a lumbar puncture be placed?caudal equinawhich of the following forms the innermost layer of the meningespia materwhich of the following is the toughest and thickest layer of the meningesdura materwhich of the following regions in the spinal cord contain myelinated fiberswhite matterthe dorsal root carries which type of fiberssensoryfunction of posterior column?senses body position and movementfunction of spinothalamic tract?feels pain and temperaturewhich of the motor tracts is involved in keeping balancereticulospinal tracts vestibulospinal tractswhich of the following surrounds a nerve fiberendoneuriumwhich of the following surrounds a nerveepineuriumwhich of the following is not a nerve plexusthoracic plexus not:lumbar/cervical/thoracicwhich of the following is not a nerve form by the brachial plexusfemoral not: musculocutaneous, axillary, median, ulnarwhat is the function of oligodendrocytesform myelin sheathwhat is found in the dorsal root ganglionsoma of sensory neuronswhich nerve would be affected by severing the lateral cord of the brachial plexusmusculocutaneous nerve median nervewhich of the following form the myelin sheath in the peripheral nervous systemschwann cellswhich of the following is not a property of a reflexvoluntary not: requires stimulation, sterotyped, quickwhat is the difference between a monosynaptic reflex arc and a polysynaptic reflex arcpolysnaptic reflex arcs consist of one or more interneuronswhat kind of neurons innervate the ends of a muscle spindlegammawhich of the following is not part of the brainadrenal medullawhich of the following is not part of the cerebrumpons not: cerebral cortex, ganglion, hippocampusparts of the brain stem:-midbrain -pons -medulla oblongatawhat is found in between the two layers of dura mater in the brain?dura sinuswhich ventricles is (are) the largest in the brainlateralwhat is the function of ependymal cells that line the ventriclesfilter blood plasma to produce cerebrospinal fluidwhich glial cells form the blood brain barrierastrocyteswhat type of junction is responsible for the primary function of the blood brain barrier?tight junctionswhich of the following is unable to cross the blood brain barrierhydrophilic moleculeswhich of the following is not regulated by the medulla oblongatavisionwhich of the following is part of ponspontine tegmentumwhich of the following is (are) functions of the tectum-visually fixated on an object while the head moves -smooth pursuit while tracking a moving object -receive information from the inner ear for hearing and equilibriumwhat are the effects of cerebellar damageuncoordinated, incorrectly timed movementswhich of the following is not a function of the hypothalamusfine motor control not: hormone control, sleep and circadian rhythm, and satiety,what structure connects the two hemispheres of the cerebral cortexcorpus callusomwhat is the most rostral lobe of the cerebral cortexfrontal lobewhich lobe would the primary motor cortex be foundfrontal lobethe corpus callosum is composed of which types of tractscommissary tractstracts that leave the cerebrum are composed of what type of neuronpyramidal cellswhich of the following is not part of the limbic systemcerebellum not: hippocampus, amygdala, cingulate gyruswhich of the following is not part of the basal ganglionnone of the above not: caudate nucleus, putamen, globus palliduswhat are the effects of the putamen in the direct pathway of motor control in the basal ganglionputamen inhibits globus pallidus, which causes disinhibition and activation of the thalamusin parkinsons disease, the substantial nigra is damaged. this leads to decreased activation of the substantial nigra, and subsequent decrease in activation of the globus pallidus. what is the effect of the decrease in globus pallidus activationactivation of the thalamusprimary visual cortexoccipital lobewhich area is responsible for planning motor movementspremotor cortexa person suffering a stroke in the temporal lobe is most like to have damage in which sensory cortexprimary auditory cortexwhich cranial nerves are purely sensoryoptic, olfactorywhich of the following trigeminal nerve division carries sensory sensation from the chin to the ponsmandibular divisonwhich of the following is not involved in eye movementsaccessory nervewhich of the following is not a property of a visceral reflexquickwhich of the following is a result of parasympathetic activationincreased peristalsiswhere do the preganglionic fibers for the sympathetic division originatethoracic and lumbar regions of spinal cordwhere are the soma of the sympathetic postganglionic fiberautonomic ganglions of the sympathetic trunkwhich of the following is not produced by the adrenal medullahistaminewhich neurotransmitter is released by all presynaptic fibers of the autonomic nervous systemacetylcholinewhich neurotransmitter is released by postsynaptic fibers of the sympathetic divisionnorepinephrinewhich of the following is responsible for detecting painful stimulinociceptorswhich cranial nerve is not involved in detecting pain sensations from the headoculomotorwhich lingual papillary does not have taste buds and is mainly for sensing the texture of foodfiliformwhich of the following is not found in the olfactory mucosaglial cellsauditory hair cells are anchored to which structurebasilar membrane of the cochlear ductthe blind spot is caused by which structure leaving the eye, resulting in the absence of photoreceptors at that locationoptic nervephotoreceptors in the eye synapse with which type of cellsbipolar cellsin the absence of light, rod cells release glutamate. what is the effect of the release of this neurotransmitterinhibits bipolar cellsdamage to which of the following area will result in speech that does not conform to language rules and incorrect word usage (problems with language planning)wernicke's areaactivation of the vagus nerve will cause which of the following effectsdecrease heart ratefunctions of muscle spindlemonitor muscle strength and movement