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Anatomy Chapter 12.3
Terms in this set (49)
between the Diencephalon and pons
Where is the midbrain located?
-superior cerebellar peduncles
two bulging structures containing descending pyramidal (corticospinal) motor tracts (major motor pathways)
Superior cerebral peduncle
What fiber tract connects the midbrain to the cerebellum?
superior cerebral peduncle
fiber tracts connecting midbrain to cerebellum
hollow tube connecting the third and fourth ventricle
largest midbrain nuclei found on dorsal midbrain surface; 2 super and 2 inferior pair
What is the largest midbrain nuclei?
superior pair; visual reflex centers
inferior pair; auditory reflex centers
iron pigment found in midbrain
a nuclei that contains melanin; found in the midbrain
bulging brainstem region between the midbrain and the medulla oblongata
Where are the Pons located?
deep longitudinal fibers that connect higher brain centers and spinal cord
more superficial fibers that form the middle cerebellar peduncles; connect pons with cerebellum
What structure forms the middle cerebellar peduncles?
-origin of several cranial nerves
-relay impulses between the motor cortex of the cerebrum and cerebellum
-some help with breathing rhythm
What structure is the origin of several cranial nerves?
most inferior part of the brain stem' blends into spinal cord
Where is the medulla oblongata located?
-decussation of pyramids
thin capillary-rich membrane on dorsal wall of ventricles
What structure is responsible for making CSF
two longitudinal ridges formed by pyramidal tracts
decussation of pyramid
crossing the fibers of the corticopinal tracts
-relay sensory information on state of muscles and joints to the cerebellum
-meditate responses that maintain equilibrium
-visceral motor nuclei
dorsal to pons and medulla; protrudes under occipital lobes of cerebral hemisphere
Where is the cerebellum located?
two bilaterally symmetrical lobes connected medially by worm-like vermis
fine, transversely oriented, pleat-like gyri
pattern of white matter that resembles a branching tree
-provides precise timing and appropriate skeletal muscle contraction patterns; coordinates body movements
-all activity occurs subconsciously (no awareness of functioning)
-seems to play a role in cognitive processing and emotional control
1.) Receives cerebral cortex impulses or "intent to initiate" a voluntary muscle contraction
2.) Uses information about muscle & tendon tension, joint position, and information from visual & equilibrium pathways to evaluate current body position & momentum
3.) Calculates best way to perform a coordinated movement using where the body is now versus where it wants to be
4.) Sends coordinated movement "blueprint" to cerebral motor cortex which executes desired movement
Explain cerebellar processing for motor activity.
functional brain system involved in emotions & memory processing
functional system that spans the brain stem; filters out repetitive stimuli, maintains cerebral cortical alternates, and helps regulate skeletal & visceral muscle activity
graphic record of the electrical activity of nerve cells in the brain; electrodes are places on scalp and connected to an apparatus that measures electrical potential
patterns of neuronal electrical activity
relatively regular rhythmic, low-amplitude, synchronous waves; AWAKE but RELAXED
Rhythmic but not as regular and have a higher frequency; AWAKE and ALERT
More irregular; common in children; uncommon in adults but may appear when concentrating
High-ampplitude waves; DEEP SLEEP
conscious perception of sensations, voluntary initiation and control of movement, and capabilities associated with higher mental processing
a brief loss of consciousness; usually due to inadequate cerebral blood flow
significant unresponsiveness to sensory stimuli for an extended period; not deep sleep
typically an irreversible coma; brain has suffered irreparable damage
state of partial unconsciousness from which a person can be aroused by stimulation
recurring episodes of sleep during the day and often disrupted sleep during the night
a chronic inability to obtain the amount or quality of sleep needed to function during the day
a temporary cessation of breathing during sleep; person wakes abruptly due to hypoxia (lack of oxygen)
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