Speech given by Malcolm X on April 3, 1964 in Cleveland, Ohio. Advised African Americans to judiciously exercise their right to vote, but he cautioned that if the gov't continued to prevent African Americans from attaining full equality, it might be necessary for them to take up arms.
The ballot → Said that President Johnson and the Democratic Party claimed to support the civil rights bill, and the Democrats controlled both the HoR and the Senate, but they had not taken genuine action to pass the bill. Instead, he said, the Democrats blamed the Dixiecrats, who were "not but Democrat[s] in disguise." Accused the Democrats of playing a "political con game", with African Americans as its victims.
African Americans were becoming "politically mature" and recognizing that, through unity and nonalignment, they could be the swing vote in the coming elections and elect candidates who would be attentive to their concerns.
Described how potent a weapon the ballot could be, if it was exercised with care: "A ballot is like a bullet. You don't throw your ballots until you see a target, and if that target is not within your reach, keep your ballot in your pocket"
The bullet → Referred to "the type of Black man on the scene in America today [who] doesn't intend to turn the other cheek any longer", and warned that if politicians failed to keep their promises, they made violence inevitable.
Black and Hispanic students in the US tend to be concentrated in schools where they make up almost the entire student body.
Visited nearly 60 public schools; found that conditions had grown worse for inner-city children in the 50 years since Brown v. Board. Wealthier white families continued to leave the city to settle in the suburbs, with minorities comprising most of the families left in the public school system.
Attacks the disparity in expenditures on education between central cities and well-to-do suburbs, and the system of property taxes which most school systems and states rely on for funding. Inequities in expenditure, pointing out the NYC in 2002-3 spent $11,627 on the education of each child, while in Nassau County, the town of Manhasset spent $22,311, and Great Neck $19,705. He found that there are comparable disparities in other metropolitan areas, since most funding is locally based.
Schools that are separated by a 15-minute drive but offer vastly different educational opportunities. In one example, a primarily white school offers drama club and AP classes, and the nearby primarily black school requires classes like hairdressing.
Prepares people for a certain trade. As the labour market becomes more specialized and require higher levels of skill, governments and businesses are increasingly investing in the future of vocational education through publicly funded organizations and subsidized apprenticeship or traineeship initiatives for businesses.
Kozol writes about how one school he visited, students were required to taking sewing and hairdressing classes to fulfill a specific requirement in order to graduate. Students at Beverly Hills High School could fulfill that same requirement with academic classes such as architecture, engineering, etc.
"You are ghetto, so sew!": Kozol writes that one student said this to another who was upset about having to take the sewing class. Means that the owners of the sewing factors need laborers, and it's obviously no going to be their own kids so they can grow beyond themselves, but more disadvantaged kids stay the same.
Kozol also writes about a school, starting in kindergarten, was littered with "Help Wanted" signs. Kids from kindergarten are asked to start thinking about jobs they might want. Class was like working in a store.
Kozol writes about another school that had a bunch of class jobs with the title in "manager" in it. Principal said that this was because they want children to understand that they can be a manager in their lives, even if they have a felony or arrest.
• Non-violent transition of power in what was then Czechoslovakia.
• By second half of the 1980s, the political atmosphere in the Soviet Union and its satellite states was more relaxed than it had been in decades, due to Gorbachev's policies.
• Czechoslovakia's Communist Party took efforts to prevent Gorbachev's reforms from being enacted at home, where an autocratic political system prevailed, government dissent was not tolerated, and political activists were punished harshly through the second half of the 1980s. Continued to carry out these policies in the aftermath of the fall of the Berlin Wall and the subsequent democratic transition of other Soviet-bloc countries such as Poland and Hungary. These politically repressive conditions, combined with the collapse of the Soviet Union, inspired the Czechoslovaks to demand change from their gov't. In the last six weeks of 1989, opposition activists staged what became known as the "Velvet Revolution," to overthrow the Communist government.
• Velvet is associated b/c it was a peaceful movement ending in compromise, not violence; Havel and his activist movement held a strategic preference for nonviolent action that facilitated the movement's success.
Gave state property (public property) to officials and dividing some 95% of assets amongst all-union, regional, and municipal control.
As a result, state assets were "hidden" as it were, from the claims of the rising masses. Instead of one impersonal owner in the form of the state, it acquired numerous "custodians," whom any future claimants would have to fight separately.
Instead of reacting to the protests with violence, the communists went to western banks and became the new capitalist class
Looking at the aftermath of collapse of communism 1989-1999
Refers to what happened to those previous heads of communist party
Nomenklatura = those with titles, social reputation; those with noble names → what happened to them? became part of the capitalist elite because they retained the assets that were, in Communist terms, supposed to be everyone's.
Theory that people's cultural and religious identities will be the primary source of conflict in the post-Cold War world. Developed from a lecture into a 1993 Foreign Affairs article in response to his former student Francis Fukuyama's end of history.
Surveyed the diverse theories about the nature of global politics in the post-Cold War period. Some theorists and writers argued that human rights, liberal democracy, and capitalist free market economy had become the only remaining ideological alternative for nations in the post-Cold War world.
o Huntington believed that while the age of ideology had ended, the world had only reverted to a normal state of affairs characterized by cultural conflict. In his thesis, he argued that the primary axis of conflict in the future will be along cultural and religious lines.
o He posits that the concept of different civilizations, as the highest rank of cultural identity, will become increasingly useful in analyzing the potential for conflict.
o Represents a development of history. In the old time, the history of the int'l system was mainly about the struggles between monarchs, nations, and ideologies. Those conflicts were primarily seen within Western civilization. But after the end of the cold war, world politics had been moved into a new aspect in which non-Western civilizations were no more the exploited recipients of Western civilization but became another important actor joining the West to shape and move the world history.
Criticism of the IMF and SAPs. Consisted of common guiding principles: privatization, deregulation, and liberalization. The problem is that SAPs and the analytics are a "one-size-fits-all" type of program; forces third-world countries asking for help to follow the prescribed economic policies in order to qualify for loans.
Davis makes the claim that the IMF and WB have driven the creation of urban slums.
"Adjustment from Below" section covers the role of poor urban women in households and how they were affected under SAPs.
As employment for males and social services disappeared, women had to work harder to compensate for these cuts. In industrialized/ing cities (Southeast Asia for example), women worked the assembly lines. But this option didn't exist for African and most Latin American countries.
Instead, women worked as street vendors, prostitutes, hairdressers, nannies, etc. Older children were also forced to drop out of school to help their families.
Food riots and anti-IMF protests peaked in late 1970s/early 1980s.
Comments on neoclassical theories: neoclassical theory states that the 1990s should have corrected the wrongdoings of the 1980s and allowed Third World cities to regain lost ground. however, according to the UN's Human Development Report 2004, "an unprecedented number of countries saw development slide backwards since the 1990s".
SAPs and self-imposed neoliberal programs increased the demolition of state employment, local manufacturing, and home-market agriculture in the Third World.