28 terms

Classifying the Diversity of Life

Description of prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells.
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Domains
Organisms with prokaryotic cells are separated into two______, Bacteria and Archaea.
Bacteria
____ are the most diverse and widespread prokaryotes.
Archaea
Most of the prokaryotes known as ___ live in extreme environments, such as salty lakes.
Eukarya
All Organisms with eukaryotic cells are grouped in domain _____.
Protists
_____ are diverse collection of mostly single-celled eukaryotes, which are sorted into several kingdoms to reflect their evolutionary relationships.
Plantae
Kingdom ___ consists of multicellular eukaryotes that produce their food by photosynthesis.
Fungi
Kingdom _____ infludes Eukaryotic organisms that mostly decompose organic wastes and absorb nutrients into their cells.
Animalia
Kingdom ___ consists of multicellular eukaryotes that obtain their food by ingesting (eating) other organisms.
Scientific inquiry
Scientists use a general process known as ____ to ask and answer questions about nature.
Inductive Reasoning
Using a type of logic known as ______, a generalized conclusion can often be drawn from a large number of specificobservations
Hypothesis
A(n) ______ is a proposed explanation for a set of observations. It leads to predictions that can be tested by additional observations or by experiments.
Deductive reasoning
______ uses "if..... then " logic to proceed from a general hypothesis to specific predictions of results that can be expected if the general premise is true.
Falsifiable
A hypothesis must be testable and ____-- there must be some observation or experiment that could show that it is not true.
Controlled Experiment
A(n) _____ involves both an experimental group and a control group, which are alike except for the one variable that the experiment is designed to test.
Theory
A(n) ______ is broader in scope than a hypothesis, is supported by a large body of evidence, and generates many new hypotheses.
hydrophobic
Lipids are diverse compounds that are grouped together because they are _____.
Glycerol
A fat molecule is composed of two types of smaller molecules: ______ and fatty acids.
Carboxyl Group
A fatty acid consists of a _______ and a long hydrocarbon chain.
Unsaturated acids
_______ have one or more double bonds in their hydrocarbon chains and are usually found in vegetable oils.
Saturated Fatty Acids
The hydrodcarbon chains of ______ are not kinked, and thus pack closely together, making animal fats solid at room temperature.
Phospholipids
_______ are a major component of cell membranes. They form a bilayer with their hydrophobic tails mingling together and their hydrophilic heads facing the watery environment on both sides of the membrane.
Steroids
_____ are lipids with a structure consisting of four fused rings. Many sex hormones are made from this type of lipid.
Nucleotides
Nucleic acids are polymers of _____.
Nitrogenous Base
The monomers of nucleic acids consist of a phosphate group, a five-carbon sugar, and a ______.
DNA
provides directions for its onw replication. It also directs cell activities by providing instructions for building proteins.
Sugar-phosphate
A polynucleotide has a repeating ____ backbone.
Double Helix
The structure of DNA is a _____, held together by the complementary base-pairing of cytosine with guanine, and adenine with thymine.
Polynucleotide
RNA usually consists of a single ____ strand.