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Combo with "Child and Adolescent Development Chapter 7" and 1 other
Terms in this set (89)
Regulate attention and process information.
regardless of experience perspective wont take place till concrete stage
executive function skills
store and process information in short term memory.
describes ability to manage info.
improves with age. maintaining focus thru out the problems so you get all the info you need. (stops from jumping ahead)
working memory ---> short term memory
shift between diff tasks and rules. see the rules and apply correctly.
domain specific task
theory of mind
represent mental states of self and others
other people have their own thoughts and ideas that aren't ours
foundation for empathy
enables prediction of the behavior of others
abilities to develop gradually, not suddenly.
little or no theory of mind - no empathy or sympathy
cant represent other peoples mind.
development of theory of mind
14 months- joint attention-caregiver is engaging in something will child
2 years- pretend play with others, we together have a shared fantasy.
3 years- seeing leads to knowing test. "which one knows whats in the box?"
4 years-false belief test (sally anne) think inside some1 elses head. child needs to distinguish their mind set from others..
4-5 years- appearance reality test.. (box of candy...put crayons)
private thoughts and deception...not everything has to be shared..ppl have diff perspectives.
The change from an egocentric perspective to one that considers more than one aspect of a problem.
Thinking based on one's own perspective, not another person's (preoperational)
The last of Piaget's four stages of cognitive development; characterized by an advancement in thought that is abstract and hypothetical.
The capacity to think about multiple factors leading to multiple outcomes.
Awareness first achieved during the sensorimotor stage of development that indicates knowledge that objects continue to exist even when there is no perception of them.
Logical thought including reversibility and the ability to perform mental manipulations.
Part of Elkind's concept of adolescent egocentrism. Refers to the belief of some adolescents that they are uniquely invulnerable.
The second of Piaget's four stages of cognitive development; marked by an advancement in mental representation and an absence of logic.
The ability to mentally reverse operations. A characteristic change that marks the stage of concrete operations.
Guided assistance, or social support for learning.
Piaget's term for the mental representation of actions, events, or phenomena. In the information-processing theory of cognitive development, it refers to a mental structure in long-term memory that aids in organization and retrieval of information.
The first of Piaget's four stages of cognitive development; marked by infants gaining cognitive under- standing primarily through their senses and movements.
The ability to order objects based on a common property.
Sociocultural Theory of Cognition
Vygotsky's theory of cognitive development; emphasizes the importance of social and cultural context in learning.
Stage Theory of Cognitive Development
Piaget's theory that views cognitive growth as a qualitative change that occurs from childhood through adolescence.
The mental capability to use symbols to represent objects.
The ability to compare two objects based on the property of a third.
Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)
The range of knowledge and skills that a child cannot perform alone but is capable of accomplishing with the assistance of a higher-skilled adult or peer.
cognitive development is required for perspective taking to develop
cognitive development doesn't guarantee that perspective taking will develop
low cognitive development and high perspective taking
social perpective taking (Robert Selman)
stage 0- egocentric
friends: momentary physical reactions
2- self reflective role taking
friends: one way assistance
3- mutual role taking
friends: fair weather
parents: guidance counselor-need satisfier
4 - social and conventional system taking
friends: autonomous interdepends
parents: equal partners (or not)
with inotation. making noise, knowing if people are speaking Chinese by the babbling
Single words that indicate entire phrases.
chomsky argument against skinner- learning theory to language aquisition
younger kids learn language faster, after puberty its harder to learn a language.
The high-pitched intonations often used when speaking to infants. Sometimes referred to as "motherese" or "baby-talk."
The approach to language development that advances the idea that growth of language appears to be directed by both biology and social experiences.
The set of formal sounds, gestures, and symbols that are shared by a group of people.
Language Acquisition Device (LAD)
Noam Chomsky's term to describe the built-in mechanism for acquiring language.
over-regulations are not taught or modeled
"somebody went out the door"--- "goed..."
The smallest unit of language that still has meaning. (dress UNdress, dressing)
Speech that uses single words in an overly generalized manner.
The basic sounds of a language.
social rules that guide the use of language
Communication processes used by infants before they begin to use words. (reflexes-ahh, cooing-vowels, vocal play-vowel consonant combinations, canonical babbling-without inotation)
The meanings of words.
Rules, structure, grammar
The deletion of nonessential words. Used primarily to describe early speech. verbs and nouns combinations. We understand more than we produce
A theoretical construct that assumes there are universal properties in the construction of human languages.
Language acquisition theory
children can hear but cant imitate. language is a type of behavior that involves the mouth
it's easier to comprehend don't rather than do
a time or stage in a person's development when they are more responsive to certain stimuli and quicker to learn particular skills
ability to understand or comprehend language heard or read
means being able to put thoughts into words and sentences, in a way that makes sense and is grammatically accurate
Pragmatics is a branch of linguistics, which is the study of language. Pragmatics focuses on conversational implicature, which is a process in which the speaker implies and a listener infers. Simply put, pragmatics studies language that is not directly spoken
Language acquisition device (LAD), suggests the brain has the inbuilt capacity to learn language
- Universal Grammar, the explanation that all languages have the principles of grammar despite surface differences
pidgins and creoles
merge of two or more languages
Experiencing stimuli through the senses
Becoming aware of objects relations and events by way of the senses (What it is? seeing/hearing)
The process of which knowledge is acquired and used. (How does it work? categorizing/memorizing)
Visual Preference Paradigm
Infants placed in a looking chamber and shown a series of visual stimuli while a researcher then records where the baby was looking
a decrease in responding occurs as a result of repeated presentation of a stimulus (infants become bored) Telling us that infants can tell the difference between two stimuli
infants come into the world with visual preferences
1. prefer movement opposed to being stationary
2. Have a certain level of complexity
3. have high color contrast
Auditory is far more mature then vision at birth
Individual sounds that make up words (rolling r's in Spanish)
Begins prenatally as fetus hears mothers voice and environment sound
Most objects and events that infants experience are perceived through more then one sense
Infants are NOT blank slates
First to propose that children play an active role in shaping their Schemes
Basic units ok knowledge (when an infant puts everything in its mouth - sucking schema)
Schemes that require abstract mental representation (debating on where furniture can go in your room) ; Infants initially operate on action schemes but shift to mental schemes with age
How do Schemes change?
Organization and Adaptation
schemes are integrated with each other (thumb sucking isn't a scheme but is a combination of arm movement scheme and thumb sucking scheme
The process of modifying schemes based on new information:
Assimilation- incorporating new information into new schemes
Accommodation- changing existing schemes to incorporate new information
Schemes develop as result of four factors
2.Self- generated activity
3.New information from the physical and social world
Hypothetico- Deductive Reasoning
reasoning beyond everyday expierences
Thinking about Thinking
Reflective Abstraction: You didn't do well on exam 1 you can think about your study strategies and adjust them
Imaginary Audience: self- centered bias (I am "on stage all the time)
Personal Fable: The belief that one is unique and invulnerable
innate responses only
(no object permanence)
primary circular reactions
circular reaction=repeated motor behavior
centered on the body
(no object permanence)
secondary circular reactions
-centered on external objects (rattle)
-(no object permanence)
-visual search and retrieval of partially visible objects
coordination of secondary schemes
-goal directed behavior and imitation (pull the blanket in order to get it)
-no visible displacement (a not b error)
tertiary circular reactions
-trial and error (throwing a spoon to see what happens) transition moment
-(object permanence and visible displacement)
-no invisible displacement
internal representation of motor behaviors (thinking about carrying a doll and trying to open the door) transition from sensory to preoperational.
-object permanence, visible and invisible displacement
things exist even though you can't see them
hide an object when the child is NOT watching, so they did not actually see you move the object
the development of depth perception
Depth perception and fear of heights are
innate in most animals.
Depth perception in humans is innate,
emerging around 2 months of age (when
binocular vision develops).
Human fear of heights is learned,
emerging around 6 to 9 months of age
(when locomotion develops).
symbolic capabilities develop
mental abilities are neither logical nor organized
centration- you look at one aspect of the problem (how tall the glass is..instead of how wide it is)
Transductive reasoning- without any rules-specific to specific
magical thought- illogical. what we evoke when we don't have explanation - preoperational period.
overwhelmed by appearance- somehow the amount changed.
concrete operational thought
mental abilities that are logical and organized but only if the topic is tangible.
reversibility- retrace mental steps
decantation- balancing, more than one explanation works together
mental abilities that develop with concrete operational thought
conservation- amount of something doesn't change when you make irrelevant changes to it's appearances. doesn't come online all at once.
seriation- ability to arrange objects in an order.
classification- ability to put things into groups hat share characteristics.
transitivity- ability to infer relation between 2 objects on basis of their relation with a 3rd object (john is older than mark. mark is older than bill. john is _______ to bill. )
formal operation thought
mental abilities can be logical and organized even if the topic is abstracts
inductive-scientific reasons (specific to abstract)
generate principles and rules.
hypothetico-deductive-abstract to specific (general hypothesis than test it )
domain specificity- skills differ from skill to skill.
concrete ---> formal
thought differ depending on skill. we occupy both domain specificity concrete on some topics and formal on others.
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