56 terms

Geography Final Exam Review - 1st Semester

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absolute location & relative location
what geographers use as reference points (location)
absolute location
use coordinates to find the exact location of a place on Earth
relative location
explaining where something is located by using other places around it (south of, west of)
economic activity map
a thematic map that will help you find the ways land is used & the ways that people make money
population density map
a thematic map that will show you how crowded an area is; the # of people per square mile
(also shows urban centers = cities)
physical features map
a thematic map that will show you the location of mountains, rivers & other landforms/bodies of water
climate zone map
a thematic map that will indicate temperature, precipitation of area
vegetation zone map
a thematic map that will indicate the location of tress, plants, bushes (or lack of vegetation)
physical geography
the study of natural features on the surface of Earth
(physical features, climate, vegetation)
human geography
the study of humans on Earth
(population density, economic activity)
writing a paragraph about human geography
you would talk about commercial fishing, for example, since it is a human activity
writing a paragraph about physical geography
you would talk about a mountain range, for example, since it is a physical feature
climate
the temperature & precipitation of a place will be affected by: elevation, bodies of water & latitude
climagraph
a graph that shows the average monthly temperature & the average monthly precipitation for a city for an entire year
the bar graph (on a climagraph)
shows the average monthly precipitation for a city
the line graph (on a climagraph)
shows the average monthly temperature for a city
hemispheres
will help determine seasons & climate (equator)
northern hemisphere
the hemisphere that we are located; countries in the southern hemisphere will have the opposite seasons
gross domestic product
GDP; the total value of the products and services sold in a country for one year (look at a country or region's economic activity = $)
a densely populated location
early cities are crowded today b/c they were founded by a river (used for shipping & transportation)
a sparsely populated location
not very crowded possibly b/c it is located near a desert, mountain range or in a cold climate
climate near the equator
hot all year
push factors
a negative aspect or condition that motivates one to leave one's country; war, drought, lack of economic opportunity
pull factors
something positive that encourages people to move to a new place; jobs, education, technology, health care
invasive species
nonnative plants and animals that invade an ecosystem; Asian Carp, zebra mussel
consumption
the using up of goods and services; also the purchase and use of goods and services by consumers
U.S. oil consumption
do NOT have the largest population but consumes the MOST oil
world oil consumption
if all countries consumed oil like us, there would not be enough oil to meet demand
developed countries
a wealthy country with an advanced economy. Developed countries have many industries and provide a comfortable way of life for most of their people.
developing countries
a poorer country with a less advanced economy; life expectancy & literacy rates will be low
life expectancy
the average age to which a person in a given population can expect to live
literacy rate
% of the population that have the ability to read and write at a specified age
cartogram
a map that is distorted in order to show numerical (numbers) data; bigger countries are created using bigger #'s/boxes - smaller countries are created using smaller #'s/boxes
tropical rain forest
broadleaf evergreen forest found in hot & wet regions near the equator (Brazil)
land use conflict
disagreement over how to use a particular area of land
cattle ranchers
want to use the Amazon rain forest to profit off of hungry people around the world (cattle = beef)
loggers
are deforesting the Amazon rain forest; once trees are gone, they will not be again around for a long time
environmentalists
trying to spread the word about the need to conserve, protect natural resources (rain forests)
"lungs of the Earth"
nickname for rainforests; they play an important part in the carbon-oxygen cycle
elevation
the height of the land above sea level
skin cancer
Australia has the highest rates of skin cancer
hole in the ozone layer
the reason why Australia has the highest rates of skin cancer
native species
animals or plants that occur naturally in an area; the kangaroo in Australia
Australia
was originally a colony of British prisoners; eventually people were invited to live there for economic reasons
January 26th
would be summer in Australia
greenhouse effect
the process by which gases in the atmosphere trap heat from the sun and keep it close to Earth's surface; his trapped heat may contribute to global warming
ice cores
large tube of ice removed from a glacier or ice sheet; scientists study the layers of snow and ice in order to learn what the climate was like as far back as 420,000 years ago
tropical zone
area between the equator and the Tropic of Cancer and between the equator and the Tropic of Capricorn, where the climate is generally hot
polar zone
the area between the Arctic Circle and the North Pole or between the Antarctic Circle and the South Pole, where the climate is generally cold
temperate zone
the area between Earth's tropical zones and polar zones, where the climate is relatively mild
topic sentence
summarizes the main idea of that paragraph; it is usually the first sentence in a paragraph
evidence
the available body of facts or information indicating whether a belief is true or valid
explanation of evidence
using evidence (from a map or document) and analyzing the meaning of the evidence, explaining it in your own words
urban
characterized by high human population density; a city
rural
relating to the countryside
political cartoon
a visual/cartoon with a MESSAGE; once you look closely, there is a MAIN IDEA