Nixon wanted the southern voters who were white southern racists
To attract white voters in the South, President
Nixon decided on a policy of slowing the country's desegregation efforts.
Throughout his first term, President Nixon worked to reverse several civil
rights policies. In 1969, he ordered the Department of Health, Education, and
Welfare (HEW) to delay desegregation plans for school districts in South Carolina
violated brown vs board of education; In response to an NAACP suit, the high court ordered Nixon to
abide by the second Brown ruling. The president did so reluctantly, and by 1972,
nearly 90 percent of children in the South attended desegregated schools—up
from about 20 percent in 1969
Nixon opposed the
extension of the Voting Rights Act of 1965.
In 1971, the Supreme Court
ruled in Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of
Education that school districts may bus students to
other schools to end the pattern of all-black or all-white
Nixon also opposed integration through busing and
went on national television to urge Congress to halt the
During Nixon's first term, four justices,
including chief justice Earl Warren, left the bench through
retirement. President Nixon quickly moved to put a more
conservative face on the Court. In 1969, the Senate
approved Nixon's chief justice appointee, U.S. Court of
Appeals judge Warren Burger.
the newly shaped Court did not always take
the conservative route—for example, it handed down the
1971 ruling in favor of racially integrating schools through
Reasons behind stagflation
result of Lyndon
Johnson's policy to fund the war and social programs
through deficit spending. Also, increased competition in
international trade, and a flood of new workers, including
women and baby boomers, led to stagflation.
heavy dependency on foreign oil.
OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting
OPEC is a cartel
During the 1960s, America received much of
its petroleum from the oil-producing countries of the OPEC cartel
OPEC gradually raised oil
prices. Then in 1973, the Yom Kippur War broke out, with
Israel against Egypt and Syria. When the United States sent
massive military aid to Israel, its longtime ally, the Arab
OPEC nations responded by cutting off all oil sales to the
United States. When OPEC resumed selling its oil to the
United States in 1974, the price had quadrupled. This sharp
rise in oil prices only worsened the problem of inflation.
Richard Nixon lived with the overwhelming fear
of losing elections. By the end of the 1972 reelection campaign, Nixon's campaign
team sought advantages by any means possible, including an attempt to
steal information from the DNC headquarters.
DNC democratic national co committee
The committee to reelect the president is a group of individuals working to out Nixon in office
At 2:30 A.M., June 17, 1972, a guard at the Watergate
complex in Washington, D.C., caught five men breaking into the campaign headquarters
of the DNC.
burglars planned to photograph documents outlining
Democratic Party strategy and to place wiretaps, or "bugs," on the office telephones.
The press soon discovered that the group's leader, James McCord, was a former CIA
agent. He was also a security coordinator for a group known as the Committee to
Reelect the President (CRP)
The president of CRP is John Mitchell who used to be the attorney general
Workers shredded all
incriminating documents in Haldeman's office. The White
House, with President Nixon's consent, asked the CIA to
urge the FBI to stop its investigations into the burglary on
the grounds of national security. In addition, the CRP
passed out nearly $450,000 to the Watergate burglars to buy
of possible White House involvement in the burglary
aroused public interest in Watergate
On April 30,
1973, Nixon dismissed White House counsel John Dean and
announced the resignations of Haldeman, Ehrlichman, and
Attorney General Richard Kleindienst, who had recently
replaced John Mitchell following Mitchell's resignation.
The president's reassurances, however, came too late. In May 1973,
the Senate began its own investigation of Watergate. A special committee,
chaired by Senator Samuel James Ervin of North Carolina, began to
call administration officials to give testimony
A year-long battle for the "Nixon tapes" followed. Archibald Cox, the special
prosecutor whom Elliot Richardson had appointed to investigate the case, took
the president to court in October 1973 to obtain the tapes.
Nixon refused and
ordered Attorney General Richardson to fire Cox. In what became known as the
Saturday Night Massacre, Richardson refused the order and resigned
deputy attorney general also refused the order, and he was fired. Solicitor General
Robert Bork finally fired Cox.
Cox's replacement, Leon Jaworski, proved
equally determined to get the tapes. Several months after the "massacre," the
House Judiciary Committee began examining the possibility of an impeachment
days before the Saturday
Night Massacre, Vice President Spiro Agnew had resigned after it was revealed that he
had accepted bribes from engineering firms while governor of Maryland
Nixon nominated the House minority leader, Gerald R. Ford, as his
new vice-president. Congress quickly confirmed the nomination.
On August 5, Nixon released the tapes. They
contained many gaps, and one tape revealed a
disturbing 181/2-minute gap.
According to the
White House, Rose Mary Woods, President
Nixon's secretary, accidentally erased part of
a conversation between H. R. Haldeman and
Nixon. More importantly, a tape dated June 23,
1972—six days after the Watergate break-in—
that contained a conversation between Nixon
and Haldeman, disclosed the evidence investigators
needed. Not only had the president
known about the role of members of his administration
in the burglary, he had agreed to the
plan to obstruct the FBI's investigation.
The evidence now seemed overwhelming.
On August 8, 1974, before the full House vote on
the articles of impeachment began, President
Nixon announced his resignation from office.