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59 terms

Clep Sociology Practice Test

Clep Sociology Practice Test
STUDY
PLAY
ENDOGOMY
Marrying within own social group
Goods
Tangible objects necessary or desired
Politics
Means in which some people acquire power to control the access of scarce resources.
Manifest Functions
Intended and overly recognized.
Cultural capital
high education, nice dress, manners, and knowledge of art and high culture.
Tracking
assignment of students to courses based on test scores or previous grades
Social Epidemiology
study of causes of health in a population
Working poor
live just above or below poverty line. Poorly paid, unskilled workers or service jobs
Social Stratification
hierarchal arrangement of large social groups based on their control over basic resources. Determines which groups are allowed access to wealth and power.
Social power is held by bureaucracies
Max Weber
Prestige
respect or regard with which a person is regarded by others.
Majority Group
dominant in society. Advantaged and has superiority over resources
Who has more risk of living in poverty, the elderly or children?
Children
Human Ecology
relationship between people and the physical environment.
Gans-Ethnic Villages
live in tightly knit neighborhoods that resemble small towns.
Invasion Succession Cycle
low income people increases and start to spill over into middle class neighborhoods causing middle class people to move. Expands base of low income.
Social control
practiced by groups to confirm social norms. Internal (socialization) External (sanctions)
Retribution
The greater deviance of social harm, the greater the punishment.
Ascribed status
given at birth. Example-female or male
Comte
Founder of sociology
Mills sociological imagination-
helps distinguish between personal and public.
Founder of symbolic interaction perspective which suggest that society is the result of face-to-face interactions of people or groups.
Mead
Bois
University of Atlanta (African american school) sociologist.
Latent function
unintended or hidden function of an institution or organizations.
Conflict perspective
social groups are in constant struggle for access to control of resources.
Families of procreation
Families created by other means than natural conception. Example.....Adoption
Interlocking Corporate Directorates.
Members sit on boards of multiple corporations.
State
possesses legitimate monopoly over the use of force.
Underclass
poor, seldom employed, long term depravation class that often depends on welfare.
Viewed social class as a theory.
Weber
Added to Marx's insight
Weber
Moving from manufacturing to service jobs results in??
fewer higher paying jobs.
Crude death rate
deaths per 1000 people in a given year. Simplest death rate calculation.
Strain theroy
suggest that deviant behavior is caused by lack of access to legitimate means to achieve.
Secondary deviance
once labeled deviant; a person is more likely to exhibit deviant behavior which is called secondary deviance.
Interactionist theory
The interactionist approach focuses on how people in face-to-face interactions define the social situations of which they are part.
bilateral kinship
In bilateral kinship tracing systems, descent is traced through both the mother's and father's sides of the family. Children typically take the father's last name, however
socialist economic system
prices are set by the government. They are not the result of competition among the producers of goods.
Tertiary sector
production is the provision of services rather than goods
Pluralist model
assumes that political power is held by many different groups, who negotiate and compromise with one another.
Power
the ability to achieve goals despite opposition
WASP
white Protestants whose ancestors were from northern Europe
77 cents an hour
the difference in earnings between women and men is slightly less than
Elder abuse
to physical abuse, psychological abuse, financial exploitation, and medical abuse or neglect of people aged 65 or older.
Middle adulthood refers to people between the ages of
40 and 65
Mechanical solidarity
solidarity is based on the similarity among people, which leads to a sense of oneness with other members of the group.
Role exit
people's disengaging from social roles that have been central to their self-identity.When role exit occurs, people often adopt new roles that lead to new self-identities.
emigration
The movement of people out of a geographic area to take up residence elsewhere
Zone 1
s the central business district and cultural center
Sector model
emphasizes the significance of terrain and the particular importance of transportation routes in the layout of cities.proposes that cities grow outwards in sectors according to the location of physical features such as rivers and transportation lines such as railroads
central characteristics of a normative organization
It is voluntary
precipitating factor.
value-added model suggests that social movements develop in response to certain inciting incidents or dramatic events called precipitating factors.
role taking
process by which a person mentally assumes the role of another person or group in order to understand the world from that person's or group's point of view. For children, role-taking often occurs within play or games.
Diffusion
When two diverse cultures come into contact with each other, each adopts some of the other culture's ways as its own
impression management
people attempt to play their social roles as well as possible and to control the impressions they convey to others.
Proletariat
used by Karl Marx to describe the masses of people whose only resources are their labor skills
Early nineteenth-century sociologist considered by some to be an original founder of the discipline of sociology.
Harriet Martineau
functionalist theory, functions are
the beneficial consequences of people's actions
Microlevel analysis
Symbolic interactionist theory focuses on face-to-face interaction, which makes it a microlevel approach.