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Martin Luther

Was born a miner's son in 1483. Became a theologian and leader of the Reformation. His opposition to the wealth and corruption of the papacy and his belief that salvation would be granted on the basis of faith alone rather than by works caused his excommunication from the Catholic Church. Famous for 95 Theses . Confirmed the Augsburg Confession in 1530, effectively establishing the Lutheran Church.

John Calvin

Swiss theologian (born in France) whose tenets (predestination and the irresistibility of grace and justification by faith) defined Presbyterianism. He did not ascribe free will to people. Based in Geneva.

Ulrich Zwingli

The "People's Priest" in Zurich. Convinced that Christianity should rest on scripture alone. Disagreed with Luther on the Eucharist.

Ignatius Loyola

Principal founder and first Superior General of the Society of Jesus(Jesuits), a religious order of the Catholic Church professing direct service to the Pope in terms of mission. Members of the order are called Jesuits.He was very active in fighting the Protestant Reformation and promoting the subsequent Counter-Reformation

Charles V

This was the Holy Roman Emperor that called for the Diet of Worms. He was a supporter of Catholicism and tried to crush the Reformation by use of the Counter-Reformation. Was maddened by the spread of Protestantism but his vast territories made it nearly impossible for him to act effectively.


The practice of holding many benefices simultaneously but neglecting to visit all of them. Thomas Wosley of King Henry VIII fame was a notable practitioner.

Antoine du Prat

Louis XII's famous diplomat and Archbishop of Sens. Actions made his name synonyms with abseenteeism; first time he entered the church was in his funeral

Thomas Wosley

The Cardinal highest ranking church offical and lord chancellor. Dismissed by Henry VIII for not getting the Pope to annul his marriage to Catherine of Aragon. Notorious for pluralism.


Only country in Europe where nobility did not occupy the highest church positions.

King Henry VIII

Given the title "Defender of the Faith" by Leo X after he condemned Luther. Broke away from Catholicism because he wanted an anulment.

Pope Paul III

Italian pope who excommunicated Henry VIII, instituted the order of the Jesuits, appointed many reform-minded cardinals, and initiated the Council of Trent and established the Holy congregation of the Holy Office. Immediately made his teenage grandson a cardinal. He also established an Inquisition in the papal states.

Brethren of the Common Life

In Holland a brotherhood of non-clergy (lay people) which schooled children to prepare them for life as monks. Lived in simplicity, feed the hungry, and even taught in local schools. This group educated Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam, who was a renowned Christian humanist and wrote In Praise of Folly.

The Imitation of Christ

This book was the inspiration of the Brethren of Common Life. The author, Thomas a Kempis, urged Christians to take Christ as their model and seek perfection in a simple way of life.

Ecumenical council

A worldwide, official assembly of the bishops under the direction of the pope.

Augsburg Confession

Codification in 1530 of Luther's doctrines as established since time of Diet of Worms and subsequent confinement at Wartburg, 1521-22. Included priesthood of all believers, two sacraments, authority of the bible, justification by faith alone, end to monasticism and celibacy, consubstantiation. Luther's friend, Philip Melancthon, worked on this codification with him.


Lutheran doctrine which says the substance of the body and blood of Christ coexist with the substance of the bread and wine of communion. This conflicted with the Church's doctrine.


Family of prominent bankers and merchants in Augsburg. They gained great status through wealth, and dominance similar to that of the Medicis. They were allies of the Habsburgs, which was profitable for both families. Helped loan money to Albert (archbishop of Magdeburg) which allowed him to be pluralistic.


The forgiveness of the punishment due for past sins, granted by the Catholic Church authorities as a reward for a pious act. Martin Luther's protest against the sale of these is often seen as touching off the Protestant Reformation.

John Tetzel

Famous for saying "As soon as a coin in the coffer rings, a soul from purgatory springs!" when trying to market indulgences. He later became the church's scapegoat during the Protestant reformation.

95 Theses

Martin Luther's list of complaints and reforms that were posted on the door of the Wittenberg Castle(maybe - see pg. 458 last paragraph). He accused Johann Tetzel of wrongdoing in his selling of indulgences and asking people to pay for false promises of exoneration of their sins. Luther's protests spread throughout Europe, igniting the Reformation. Was written in Latin.

Philip Melanchthon

Friend and follower of Martin Luther, he wrote the Confessions of Augsburg, an attempt to unite Lutheran and Catholic princes that FAILED. The statements made did become the traditional statement of the Lutheran Church.

Jan Hus

According to Luther the infallibility of a general council was not true. He pointed to the execution of this individual at the Council of Constance as a prime example.

Diet of Worms

Assembly of the estates of the empire, called by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in 1521. Luther was ordered to recant but he refused. Charles V declared Luther an outlaw but he was protected by Fredrick of Saxony.

Colloquy of Marburg

1529 meeting of Protestants to unify the new faith and settle a dispute between Luther and Huldrych Zwingli over the nature of the Eucharist: Luther thought Christ was present in the bread and wine while Zwingli disagreed

sola scriptura

"Scripture alone." It is the belief that all man needs for salvation is the Bible. This is a tenet for most Protestants.

Anne Boleyn

Henry VIII mistress during the time of the English Reformation, she gave birth to Elizabeth, future queen of England. One of the reasons Henry VIII wanted to get his marriage to Catherine annulled is so that he could marry her.

John Knox

This was the man who dominated the reform movement in Scotland. He established the Presbyterian Church of Scotland so that ministers ran the church, not bishops


The Roman Catholic doctrine that the whole substance of the bread and the wine changes into the substance of the body and blood of Christ when consecrated in the Eucharist

The Real Presence

The Lutheran belief that Christ is present during the Eucharist but the bread and wine are not transformed. Part of doctrine of consubstantiation.

Clerical privileges

This angered many city governments in Germany because religious orders held a large part of urban property but payed not taxes and were exempt from clerical responsibilities. Explains why Lutheranism become popular quickly.


This was necessitated by the poor quality of sermons. Established by rich burghers, they contained preachers who were men of superior educational qualifications and delivered about a hundred sermons a year.

On Christian Liberty

Treatise by Martin Luther, argues that the Christian man is the most free lord, may have contributed to some early social unrest. The 12 Articles is an example.

Twelve Articles

1525 declaration written by representatives of the Swabian peasants in a German city. Expressed their grievances and condemned lay and ecclesiastical lords. Actually cited Luther as an inspiration.

An Admonition to Peace

Luther's tract that blasted the lords for taking advantage of the peasants. Shows his early position of supporting peasants.

Status Quo

Lutheranism tends to support the _______ _____ in terms of who holds political power.

Against the Murderous Thieving Hordes

Essay written by Martin Luther that attacked the peasants for uprising in the German Peasants' War from 1524-1526. Advocated killing peasants 'secretly and openly". Contributed to about 75,000 peasants being killed.

Larger Catechism

Luther's writing that gave brief sermons on the main articles of faith.

Shorter Catechism

Luther's writing that gave concise explanations of the doctrine in question and answer form.

Golden Bull of 1356

This was an edict by Charles IV, the Holy Roman Emperor, specifying the process of how Holy Roman Emperors were to be elected by German princes. It took some power from the Pope and codified the process in a definite way. Legalized government by an aristocratic federation.

Treaty of Arras

One of the many temporary treaties during the long conflicts between the French Bourgandy kings and the Austrian Habsburgs. Signed by HRE Maximilian and King Louis XI of France.

Appeal to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation

Unless the princes destroyed papal power in Germany, Luther argued in this book that reform was impossible. He urged princes to confiscate ecclesiastical wealth and to abolish indulgences, dispensations, pardons, and clerical celibacy. He told them it was their public duty to bring about a moral reform to the church.

Peace of Augsburg

A 1555 treaty between Charles V and the German Protestant princes that granted legal recognition of Lutheranism in Germany. Princes could not encourage the spread of Protestantism and had to accept the status quo.

The Institutes of the Christian Religion

John Calvin's publication that was the cornerstone of his theology; provided the belief in the absolute sovereignty and omnipotence of God and the total weakness of humanity.


Calvinist belief that God long ago determined who would gain salvation. Probably dates back to the writings of St. Augustine.

Genevan Catechism

A set of questions and answers to be used as a guide for daily living in Calvin's Geneva.

Genevan Consistory

Was a watch dog in Geneva of every man. Made up of 12 men and the Company of Pastors. Calvin was the permenant moderator. They had very strict regulation comperated to government punishing all normal and moral crimes. However, serious crimes were handled by civil authorities who where sometimes undr the approval of the Consistory used torture or death(Michael Servetus for example).

Michael Servetus

A Spaniard who was among the chief thinkers for the Anti-Trinitarians. He was executed in 1553 in Geneva for "blasphemies against the Holy Trinity." This thinker was among the strongest opponents of Calvinism, especially its belief in original sin and predestination and has a deserved reputation of defending religious tolerance.


A member of a radical movement of the 16th-century Reformation that viewed baptism solely as an external witness to a believer's conscious profession of faith, rejected infant baptism, and believed in the separation of church from state, in the shunning of nonbelievers, and in simplicity of life. Accepted female members and attracted the poor, unemployed, and uneducated.


An English Protestant sect that stressed individual reading and interpretation of the Bible. founded by john Wycliff. By the 15th century they had been driven undergound

Submission of the Clergy

A law passed by Henry VIII stating that no church law could be written without the king's permission.

Act in Restraint and Appeals

Act was passed by English parliament under the guidance of Thomas Cromwell. It was one of the acts that made Henry VIII and his government the power once held in England by the Catholic Church. The act states that the "realm of England is an Empire," instead of being plainly subservient to the Holy Roman Empire and the Christian papacy

Supremacy Act

In 1534, This act made the Anglican church, making king or queen head of that church, making the Archbishop of Canterbury the highest church official and divorcing England completely from Rome. Temporarily rolled back by Mary 1"Bloody Mary".

John Fisher

He was the bishop of Rochester. Refused to recognize the Act of Supremacy and Act of Succession and as a result he was executed along with humanist/chancellor Thomas More.

monastic life

Henry VIII ended nine hundred years of ________ _____ in England. Did not help achieve a more equitable distribution of land or wealth but instead most wealth went to the nobility and was used to solidify Tudor dynasty support.

Pilgrimage of Grace

An Catholic uprising in the North of England in 1536 posed a serious threat to the English crown. Both gentry and peasants were angry over the dissolution of monasteries, and feared that their spiritual needs would no longer be met. Henry VIII was able to suppress this as a result of his political power.

Edward VI

King Henry VIII's only son. Sickly, and became King at 9 years old. Since he wasn't capable of governing his country the Protestant church was soon brought in through his advisors Cromwell and Cranmer.

Book of Common Prayer

Written by Archbishop Thomas Cranmer, includes the order for all services of the Church of England.

Thomas Cranmer

Replacement of Thomas Wosley. As Archbishop of Canterbury he declares that Henry's marriage was null and void; rules for Edward VI after Henry VIII's death. Architect of the extreme protestant changes under Edward. Killed for heresy by Mary

Elizabethan Settlement

Elizabeth and Parliament required conformity to the Church of England but people were, in effect, allowed to worship Protestantism and Catholicism privately. Part of Elizabeth's "middle road" on religious affairs.

39 Articles

Also known as the Elizabethan Articles, it laid out the rules for Anglicanism. (Laws of the mild Protestant Church she created.)

Book of Common Order

Written by John Knox, became the liturgical directory for the Presbyterian Church of Scotland.

Gustavas Vasa

1520 Swede nobleman led revolt against Denmark resulting in independence; became king and took church land and demanded loyalty to Swedish crown, Overthrew Christian II.


Large non-unified state joined by two crowns. Comprised of Hungary, Lithuania, Poland, and Bohemia. Was the largest European polity in the 1500s.

the Deluge

Two decades of war that resulted from Ukrainian Cossack warriors revolting against the king of Poland-Lithuania. Many foreign nations tried to invade and claim parts of Poland.

Battle of Mohacs

Ottoman sultan Suleiman the Magnificent defeated the Hungarians at this battle on April 26,1526 (and killed King Louis II) and lots of men (16,000 +). Different parts of Hungary elected different kings, and Hungarian Empire was divided 3 ways. Helped spread the advance of protestantism.

Pope Adrian VI

This Dutch Pope sought to launch a Counter-Reformation during the time of the Protestant Reformation. Admitted that there were some problems in Catholic church. Lasted on 13 months.

Pope Clement VII

A Medici pope who refused to grant Henry VIII an annulment of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon; his indecisiveness in choosing alliances led to the Sack of Rome by Charles V and marked the end of the High Renaissance in Italy.

Battle of Pavia

Charles V dealt a severe blow to Francis I army and captured him. To pay back the deceitful Clement and pay his army he allowed them to sack Rome, capture the Pope and steel his art treasures.

Council of Trent

Called by Pope Paul III to reform the church and secure reconciliation with the Protestants. Lutherans and Calvinists did not attend. Reform measures included the Tridentin, end to concubines, establishing seminaries, required visits, and suprresed pluralism and simony.


The name for the Mass that developed after the Council of Trent (1545-1563) and was the standard Mass for the Church until the Second Vatican Council. It was said in Latin.


Religious order founded by Ignatius Loyola to counter the inroads of the Protestant Reformation were active in politics, education, and missionary work.


Order of Nuns founded by Angela Merici which provided educational services, religious training and re-Christianize society.

Angela Merici

She founded the Ursuline Order of Nuns in the 1530s to provide education and religious training, and to combat heresy.


The strict enclosure of women and nuns which was advocated by the Council of Trent.

Spiritual Exercises

During a year of intense prayer, St. Ignatius was inspired to write this guide for spiritual perfection, which is divided into reflections and meditations meant to help the believer emulate Christ.

Holy Office

It was the sacred congregation of the papal court established by Pope Paul III that deals with protection of faith and morals. Published the "Index of Banned Books"

Cardinal Caraffa

Head of the Roman Inquisition which was a committee of six cardinals with judicial authority over all Catholics and the power to arrest, imprison, and execute. He vigorously attacked heresy.

Index of Banned Books

Pretty self explanatory; the Catholic church had a prohibited books list.

Roman Inquisition

A religious committee of six Roman cardinals that tried heretics and punished the guilty by imprisonment and execution. Had very LITTLE influence outside the Papal states however, the main evidence of this is that Venice was NOT restricted or cut off from European learning.


A Dominican friar that predicted the French invasion of Florence. Was the leader of Florence after the Medici were overthrown in 1494 however his criticism of the Medici and Pope Alexander VI led to his excommunication and execution. Famous for his "Bonfire of the Vanities".


He was an Italian Renaissance philosopher known for his Oration on the "Dignity of Man". In his works, he expressed the opinion that there were no limits to what man could accomplish.

Pope Julius II

Known as the "Warrior pope." Suppressed the Borgia family and took Romagna from them to be put under papal jurisdiction. Formed 2nd Holy league with Ferdinand, Venice, Max I and Swiss. Commissioned Michelangelo to paint the Sistine Chapel(along with many others).

Giorgio Vasari

Tuscan writer wrote "Lives of the Artists," a book of biographies of the greatest artists of the Renaissance.


A belief in the importance of the individual and the virtue of self-reliance and personal independence. Became more prevalent during the Renaissance.

Pope Sylvester II

Was born a peasant as Gerbert of Aurillac. , Influence from the Arabian sundial and Chinese knowledge of mechanical clocks allowed him to build the first mechanical clock in Europe. Holy Roman Emperor declared him Pope in 999.

Edward IV

First Yorkist King of England, he re-established some stability in England after overthrowing Henry VI.

Pope Leo X

He was the son of Lorenzo de Medici This Pope sold indulgences to raise money to rebuild St. Peter's Basilica in Rome. Condemned Luther as an outlaw and a heretic then banned his ideas and excommunicated him from the church. Also withdrew from League of Cambrai and employed new Holy Roman Emperor Charles V to get rid of French in Italy which leads to Hapsburg-Valois Wars. Signed Concordat of Bologna with Francis I of France.

Pope Sixtus IV

Most famous for building the Vatican Library and Sistine Chapel which had been planned by his predecessor. He instituted nepotism and corruption as a way of life in Rome, and ran the Papacy as a family operation. In 1478, under pressure from Ferdinand of Aragon he issued the papal bull that established the Spanish Inquisition. He also supported the Pazzi Conspiracy.

Francesco Petrarch

Known as the father of Renaissance Humanism. He lived from 1304-1374 as a cleric and committed his life to humanistic pursuits and careful study of the classics. He resisted writing in the Italian vernacular except for his sonnets, which were composed to his "lady love" who spoke no Latin.


A student of Giorgione. The best "colorer guy". Famous for the "Venus of Urbino", Greatest Renaissance painter in Venice, used vivid color and movement, which was the opposite of the subtle colors and static figures in Florentine paintings.

Cosimo de'Medici

Wealthiest Florentine and natural statesman. He internally controlled Florence; behind the scenes. He kept concilors loyal to him in the Signoria. Was head of Office of Public Debt and a patron of the Florentine Platonic Academy. His grandson was Lorenzo il Magnificant.

Sistine Chapel

A chapel adjoining Saint Peter's Basilica, noted for the frescoes of biblical subjects painted by Michelangelo on its walls and ceilings. The Creation is one of the notable subjects of the ceiling paintings, and the judgment day is depicted on the rear wall of the chapel.

Fourth Crusade

Initiated by Pope Innocent III after Saladin's death to conquer Jerusalem. Crusaders instead decided to attack and set up their own government which was called the Latin Empire. Byzantine Empire was restored in 1261 but never fully recovered.


The most common form of government in the Northern Italian cities. This was a sworn association of seeking political and economic independence from local nobles. Cities included Milan, Florence, Genoa, Siena, and Pisa.

Francesco Sforza

A ruler who conquered the city of Milan and became its new duke after the last Visconti ruler of Milan died. Worked to buid a strong centralized state. By creating an efficient tax system he generated enormous revenues for the government.


The cultural achievements of the 14th through 16th century which began in Italy and gradually influenced society in northern Europe. Rested on the economic and political achievements of the previous centuries.

Papal States

A group of territories in Central Italy ruled by the popes from 754 until 1870. They were originally given to the papacy by Pepin the Short and reached their greatest extent in 1859. The last one - Vatican City —was formally established as a separate state by the Lateran Treaty of 1929.


The disenfranchised and heavily taxed citizens of Italian city-states. Used armed force and violence to take over city governments.


Father of Renaissance novels; his "Decameron" illustrate the lost of spiritual direction of Italy during Black Death.


Ruthless family that came to power in Milan in 1450. They were a Condottiere family and they hired mercenaries to control other smaller northern city-states.

Sandro Botticelli

Florentine painter known for vivid colors and a personal style. Painted both mythological works ("The Birth of Venus"(his most famous as it exemplified the female ideal) & "Primavera" or Springtime) & religious works ("The Adoration of the Magi"). He also painted "Portrait of a Young Man.


Probably exerted greatest influence of any Florentine artist before Michelangelo. His statues expressed an appreciation of the incredible variety of human nature. Sculpted "David" in Bronze.


Despots of Italian city-states. Emerged when the movement for Republican governments failed in the 13h century and Popolo lost power. Their accession to power was often accomplished peacefully, as most communes were willing to accept repression for a lasting peace.


The rule of merchant aristocracies and the new urban nobility that along with Signori's controlled much of Italy by 1300.

Charles VIII

French king invited by Sforza family to invade Florence, fought over Italy with Ferdinand of Aragon. Wanted to conquer Naples (technically inherited it). He inaugurated a new era in Italian and European power politics. Florentine Piero de Medici's attempt to seek peace lead to the Medici's overthrow and return to republican government. Died by striking his head on a door.

Richard III

He was the last English king from the House of York, and his defeat at the Battle of Bosworth marked the culmination of the Wars of the Roses.

Artemisia Gentileschi

Was an early Italian Baroque painter, today considered one of the most accomplished painters in the generation influenced by Caravaggio. In an era when women painters were not easily accepted by the artistic community, she was the first female painter to become a member of the Accademia di Arte del Disegno in Florence Painted "Judith Slaying Holofernes" and "Esther before Ahasuerus".


An Italian painter, sculptor, and architect of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Among many achievements in a life of nearly ninety years, Sculpted David and several versions of the "Pietà", painted the ceiling and rear wall of the Sistine Chapel, and served as one of the architects of Saint Peter's Basilica, designing its famous dome. Also sculpted Bound Slave ,"Dying Slave" and "Moses" for Pope Julius II's tomb.

League of Cambrai

Formed in 1508 by Louis XII with Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian and Pope Leo X to strip Venice of its mainland possessions.


Dutch Humanist and friend of Sir Thomas More. Was born a poor boy and became an orphan before he was forced to join a monastery. Perhaps the most intellectual man in Europe and widely respected. Believed the problems in the Catholic Church could be fixed; did not suport the idea of a Reformation. Wrote "Praise of Folly". and "The Education of an English Prince".

Habsburg-Valois Wars

For security reasons, France became embroiled in these conflict that frequently took place in Italy. French King Francis I went to war with Charles V over disputed territories in southern France, the Netherlands, the Rhineland, northern Spain, and Italy. Lasted 23 years and while Charles V was often victorious it prevented him from concentrating on the Lutheran problems in Germany.

Leon Battista Alberti

An accomplished humanist scholar who was a noted architect and builder in Florence. Famous for "Men can do all things if they will." idea of the universal man. Also wrote "On the Family"

Benvenuto Cellini

A goldsmith and sculptor who wrote "Autobiography" which is famous for its arrogance and immodest self-praise

Pope Nicholas V

Collected 9 thousand manuscripts and planned the Vatican library. Ended the schism caused by the rivalry between popes and church councils. Initiated the Peace of Lodi in order to end strife in Italy, and he tried to stamp out simony and other corrupt practices in the church. Issued papal bull that allowed Portuguese to subjugate other human beings.


First defined by Florentine rhetorician Leonardo Bruni. , A philosophy in which interests and values of human beings are of primary importance.

On The Dignity of Man

Written by Pico Della Mirandola, this essay suggests that man possesses great dignity because he was made as Adam in the image of god before the fall and as Christ after the resurrection.

On Pleasure

Written by Lorenzo Valla. It praises the pleasures of the senses as the highest good.

Princely Courts

By the 15th century this became the place or space where despots or oligarchs lived, conducted business, and displayed their wealth and patronage of the arts.

Lorenzo Valla

Father of Modern historical criticism. Wrote "On Pleasure", and "On the False Donation of Constantine", which challenged the authority of the papacy by showing that the western lands had been claimed by forgery.. Father of modern historical criticism.

On the False Donation of Constantine

Lorenzo Valla's analysis and critique of an 8th century document that established papal authority over western Europe. Papacies jurisdiction over vast territories in western Europe was a forgery.

Pazzi Conspiracy

This plot to overthrow the Medici was even supported by Pope Sixtus IV. An assassination attempt was made during High Mass on at the Cathedral of Florence. Lorenzo's brother, Giuliano, was stabbed 19 times and killed by a gang that included a priest! Lorenzo managed to escape. The people of Florence rallied to the Medici and the conspirators were pursued. Led to a 2-year war between Florence and the papacy. It also increased Lorenzo's power.

Peace of Lodi

Was established in order to balance the alliances between Florence and Milan and the other alliance between Venice and Naples; Led to 40 years of relative peace. Arbitrated by Pope Nicholas V.

Bonfire of the Vanities

Notorious bonfire in Florence in 1497 in which supporters of Savonarola collected and burned thousands of paintings, books, and other temptations to sin in the Piazza della Signoria.


Attitude that tends to find the ultimate explanation of everything and the final end of human beings in what reason and the senses can discover, rather than in any spiritual or transcendental belief. Rise in Renaissance signified a shift away from the Medieval ideal.


Literary work by Boccaccio which was composed of 100 vulgar tales told by three men and seven women in a country retreat from the plague that ravaged Florence in 1348. A stringing social commentary (sexual/economic misconduct) and a sympathetic look at human behavior

Gutenberg Bible

A printed version of the Latin Vulgate translation of the Bible that was printed by Johannes Gutenberg, in Mainz, Germany in the fifteenth century.

High Renaissance

Period beginning in the late 15th century, it produced some of the most well-known religious and secular artwork of the period from such figures as Leonardo, Raphael, and Michelangelo. Rome finally took the lead away from Florence as the center of art in Italy.

Lorenzo Ghiberti

Won a contest to design bronze doors for the San Giovanni Baptistry in Florence. The doors were nicknamed "The Gates of Paradise" by Michelangelo.


Painted by Botticelli; This painting portrays the birth of spring; it shows Cupid, who is Venus's son, Venus who represents April, and the 3 Graces who are Venus's handmaidens; March is represented by Zephyr, the west wind of Spring; MAY is represented by Mercury, the messenger of the gods who uses his staff to keep clouds out of Venus' garden.


An Renaissance artist who led the way into realism; his treatment of the human body and face replaced the formal stiffness and artificiality that had long characterized the representation of the human body.


The renaissance artist who led the way in establishing a new style of employing deep space modeling and anatomical correctness in painting. He was the first to use Brunelleschi's linear perspective.

The Courtier

A treatise on education written by Castiglione that sought to train, discipline, and fashion the young man into the courtly ideal, the gentleman


Wrote "The Courtier" which was about education and manners and had a great influence. It said that an upper class, educated man should know many academic subjects and should be trained in music, dance, and art.

The Prince

A short political treatise about political power how the ruler should gain, maintain, and increase it. Machiavelli explores the problems of human nature and concludes that human beings are selfish and out to advance their own interests. "Combine cunning of fox and ferocity of a lion"

Thomas More

He was a English humanist that contributed to the world today by revealing the complexities of man. He wrote "Utopia", a book that represented a revolutionary view of society. Opposed Henry VIII's divorce from Catherine of Aragon and was imprisoned and beheaded.


Stimulated literacy of laypeople during the Renaissance. It also allowed for propaganda and the rise of group consciousness that competed with localized loyalties.

Pietro Aretino

Satirist that used the shock of sex in pornography as a vehicle to criticize in his "Sonnetti Lussuriosi" and Ragionamenti.


Were more important in cities during the Renaissance. Led to the idea that the universe could be seen and quantified.

Henry VII

First Tudor king of England after gaining throne by force after the Battle of Bosworth Field from Richard III. Restored order and crafted strong monarchy. He established the Star Chamber for law & order. Frugality freed him of dependence on Parliament - power of which declined. Used marriage in Foreign Affairs with Scotland & Hapsburgs. National feeling consolidated around Tudors.

On the Family

Alberti's treatise on the crisis of the Italian families; a high birth rate racked with a high infant mortality rate that plagued 15th century Italy.

Juan Luis Vives

This Spaniard wrote 'Instruction of the Christian Woman'. Held that a women's sphere should be restrained to the home not the public arena where it would lead to competition with men.

Sir Thomas Smith

English Statesman who wrote 'The English Commonwealth'. Maintained that women should not meddle with the world of men.

Office of the Night

A special magistracy set up by the Florentine government to persecute sodomists and combat sodomy. All members were at least 45 years old and were elected annually. Name comes from the fact that most of these sexual activities occured during the night.

Praise of Folly

Written by Erasmus. Humorous criticism of the most corrupt practices of society at the time. Especially harsh on the abuses within ranks of the clergy. Ridiculed ignorance, superstition, vice among Xians, criticized fasting, religious pilgrimages, and church interpretations of parts of Bible.


France's most popular Renaissance author. Rejected the Middle Age's focus on the afterlife and believed that people should enjoy life to the fullest. Wrote "Gargantua" and "Pantagruel".


Marked by gross robust humor, extravagance of caricature, or bold naturalism.

Jan van Eyck

Flemish painter who was a founder of the Flemish school of painting and who pioneered modern techniques of oil painting. Painted "The Arlofini Weeding" and the "Ghent Altarpiece".

New Monarchs

The term applied to Louis XI of France, Henry VII of England, and Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain, who strengthened their monarchical authority often by Machiavellian means.

Justinian Code

The body of Roman law collected by order of the Byzantine emperor, Justinian around A.D. 534 based on Rome's 12 tables. Its maxim of "What pleases the prince has the force of law" was used to advance authority in the renaissance.

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