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eukaryotes or living things whose cell has a nucleus


combining photosynthesis and heterotrophic nutrition

secondary endosymbiosis

a process in eukaryotic evolution in which a heterotrophic eukaryotic cell engulfed a photosynthetic eukaryotic cell which survived in a symbiotic relationship inside the heterotrophic cell

excavata, chromalveolata, archaeplastidia, rhizaria, unikonta

the five supergroups of eukaryotes


One of 5 eukaryotic supergroups. unique cytoskeletal features, excavated feeding groove on one side of the cell body(some)


One of the five supergroups of eukaryotes proposed in a current hypothesis of the evolutionary history of eukaryotes. They may have originated from secondary endosymbiosis and include two large protist clades, the alveolates and stramenopiles.


One of the five supergroups of eukaryotes. It includes red algae, green algae, and land plants, descended from an ancient protist ancestor that engulfed a cyanobacterium.


One of the five supergroups of eukaryotes. A diverse protist clade that is defined by DNA similarities, contains amoebas


One of the five supergroups of eukaryotes. This calde consists of amoebozoans, and opisthokonts.


Have modified mitochondria. No golgi apparatus. 2 haploid nuclei. several flagella. Giardia-human intestinal parasite that cause diarrhea and intestinal discomfort. leaves host via feces. survives harsh environments by thick walled, protective cysts (don't drink mountain stream water!)


Have reduced mitochondria called hydrogenosomes, Trichomonas vaginalis - inhabits the vagina of human females; Trichonympha - guts of termites, digests cellulose, flagellated. These are symnionts and mostly benign.


Member of a diverse clade of flagellated protists that includes predatory heterotrophs, photosynthetic autotrophs, and pathogenic parasites.


A protist, such as a trypanosome, that has a single large mitochondrion that houses an organized mass of DNA


a protist characterized by one or more whiplike flagella that are used for locomotion and by a photoreceptor that detects light. These are photosynthetic, but if deprived of chlorophyll, some are capable of heterotrophic nutrition


Unicellular protists with subsurface cavities (Dinoflagellates, Ciliates, and Apicomplexans).


Group of protists that form "blooms", can be toxic. make up phytoplankton and can be bioluminescent. They generally have two flagella, half are heterotrophic and the other half are photosynthetic, many species are luminescent


A protist in a clade that includes many species that parasitize animals, ex/ malaria


Protozoan that uses cilia for food and movement


A protist in which a "hairy" flagellum (one covered with fine, hairlike projections) is paired with a shorter, smooth flagellum. Marine algae that contain some of the most important photosynthetic organisms on the planet.


single-celled organisms. found in salt and fresh water. producers. make up a large percent of phytoplankton. cell walls contain cellulose and silica (frigid and glasslike). used in silver polish, toothpaste, filter and insulation

Golden algae

A biflagellated, photosynthetic protist named for its color, which results from its yellow and brown carotenoids.

Brown algae

most are large, complex, multicellular "seaweeds"; they are common in temperate and colder waters, including those off california; they exibit a variety of life-cycles, including alternation of generations that may be heteromorphic or isomorphic;


a plant body without true stems or roots or leaves or vascular system


A special structure used by an organism to anchor itself


In some algae, the stemlike region of a thallus, supports the leaflike blades of a seaweed


provide most of an algae's surface area for photosynthesis


Referring to a condition in the life cycle of all modern plants in which the sporophyte and gametophyte generations differ in morphology.


Referring to alternating generations in which the sporophytes and gametophytes look alike, although they differ in chromosome number.


nonphotosynthetic fungi that resemble algae and that reproduce by forming oospores, water molds


rigid shells, cytoplasmic streaming-podia, life cycles involve alternating generations


A protist, usually marine, with a shell generally made of silica and pseudopodia that radiate from the central body.

red algae

most of the world's seaweeds. contain chlorophyll and red pigment. live in tropical waters. multicellular. grow less than 1 meter in length. can grow 260 m below the surface.

green algae

Photosynthetic protists that include unicellular, colonial, and multicellular species with grass green chloroplasts; closely related to true plants.

Slime molds

plasmodial-brightly colored, branching growth on a decaying log which is a protist; sporangia-fruiting bodes (reproduction structures); cellular-decomposers that live mainly on decaying organic matter

plasmodial slime molds

type of protist that has ameboid cells, flagellated cells, and a plasmodial feeding stage in its life cycle


A single mass of cytoplasm containing many diploid nuclei that forms during the life cycle of some slime molds.

cellular slime molds

A type of protist that has unicellular amoeboid cells and aggregated reproductive bodies in its life cycle.


Naked cells without conspicuous structures, mostly aquatic and terrestrial. What most people think of as amoebae.


belong to amoeboxoans; include free living and parsitic species, infect all classes of vertebrates as well as some invertebrates; we host at least 6 species, cept one-E histolytica


organisms that descended from an ancestor with a posterior flagellum, including fungi, animals, and certain protists.


organisms that make their own food

Endoplasmic Reticulum

internal membrane system in cells in which lipid components of the cell membrane are assembled and some proteins are modified

Phospholipid bilayer

Molecules that are constituents of the inner bilayer of biological membranes, having a polar, hydrophilic head and a nonpolar, hydrophobic tail.


Process through which early prokaryotic cells are thought to have engulfed other, smaller cells and eventually incorporated them as organelles; these cells evolved into modern-day eukaryotes.


having a strong affinity for water


lacking affinity for water


non membrane bounded organelles responsible for protein synthesis

Lysosomes, Centrioles, Flagella

In animal cells but not plant cells are ____________, ____________, and ____________

Diplomonads, Parabasilids, Euglenozoans

_____________, ______________, and _____________ Belong to the Excavata phylum of protists

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