How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

49 terms

Chapter 28 Protists

STUDY
PLAY
protists
eukaryotes or living things whose cell has a nucleus
mixotrophs
combining photosynthesis and heterotrophic nutrition
secondary endosymbiosis
a process in eukaryotic evolution in which a heterotrophic eukaryotic cell engulfed a photosynthetic eukaryotic cell which survived in a symbiotic relationship inside the heterotrophic cell
excavata, chromalveolata, archaeplastidia, rhizaria, unikonta
the five supergroups of eukaryotes
Excavata
One of 5 eukaryotic supergroups. unique cytoskeletal features, excavated feeding groove on one side of the cell body(some)
Chromalveolata
One of the five supergroups of eukaryotes proposed in a current hypothesis of the evolutionary history of eukaryotes. They may have originated from secondary endosymbiosis and include two large protist clades, the alveolates and stramenopiles.
Archaeplastida
One of the five supergroups of eukaryotes. It includes red algae, green algae, and land plants, descended from an ancient protist ancestor that engulfed a cyanobacterium.
Rhizaria
One of the five supergroups of eukaryotes. A diverse protist clade that is defined by DNA similarities, contains amoebas
Unikonta
One of the five supergroups of eukaryotes. This calde consists of amoebozoans, and opisthokonts.
Diplomonads
Have modified mitochondria. No golgi apparatus. 2 haploid nuclei. several flagella. Giardia-human intestinal parasite that cause diarrhea and intestinal discomfort. leaves host via feces. survives harsh environments by thick walled, protective cysts (don't drink mountain stream water!)
Parabasilids
Have reduced mitochondria called hydrogenosomes, Trichomonas vaginalis - inhabits the vagina of human females; Trichonympha - guts of termites, digests cellulose, flagellated. These are symnionts and mostly benign.
euglenozoan
Member of a diverse clade of flagellated protists that includes predatory heterotrophs, photosynthetic autotrophs, and pathogenic parasites.
kinetoplastid
A protist, such as a trypanosome, that has a single large mitochondrion that houses an organized mass of DNA
euglenid
a protist characterized by one or more whiplike flagella that are used for locomotion and by a photoreceptor that detects light. These are photosynthetic, but if deprived of chlorophyll, some are capable of heterotrophic nutrition
alveolates
Unicellular protists with subsurface cavities (Dinoflagellates, Ciliates, and Apicomplexans).
dinoflagellates
Group of protists that form "blooms", can be toxic. make up phytoplankton and can be bioluminescent. They generally have two flagella, half are heterotrophic and the other half are photosynthetic, many species are luminescent
apicomplexan
A protist in a clade that includes many species that parasitize animals, ex/ malaria
Ciliates
Protozoan that uses cilia for food and movement
Stamenopiles
A protist in which a "hairy" flagellum (one covered with fine, hairlike projections) is paired with a shorter, smooth flagellum. Marine algae that contain some of the most important photosynthetic organisms on the planet.
Diatoms
single-celled organisms. found in salt and fresh water. producers. make up a large percent of phytoplankton. cell walls contain cellulose and silica (frigid and glasslike). used in silver polish, toothpaste, filter and insulation
Golden algae
A biflagellated, photosynthetic protist named for its color, which results from its yellow and brown carotenoids.
Brown algae
most are large, complex, multicellular "seaweeds"; they are common in temperate and colder waters, including those off california; they exibit a variety of life-cycles, including alternation of generations that may be heteromorphic or isomorphic;
Thallus
a plant body without true stems or roots or leaves or vascular system
holdfast
A special structure used by an organism to anchor itself
stipe
In some algae, the stemlike region of a thallus, supports the leaflike blades of a seaweed
blades
provide most of an algae's surface area for photosynthesis
heteromorphic
Referring to a condition in the life cycle of all modern plants in which the sporophyte and gametophyte generations differ in morphology.
isomorphic
Referring to alternating generations in which the sporophytes and gametophytes look alike, although they differ in chromosome number.
oomycetes
nonphotosynthetic fungi that resemble algae and that reproduce by forming oospores, water molds
forams
rigid shells, cytoplasmic streaming-podia, life cycles involve alternating generations
radiolarians
A protist, usually marine, with a shell generally made of silica and pseudopodia that radiate from the central body.
red algae
most of the world's seaweeds. contain chlorophyll and red pigment. live in tropical waters. multicellular. grow less than 1 meter in length. can grow 260 m below the surface.
green algae
Photosynthetic protists that include unicellular, colonial, and multicellular species with grass green chloroplasts; closely related to true plants.
Slime molds
plasmodial-brightly colored, branching growth on a decaying log which is a protist; sporangia-fruiting bodes (reproduction structures); cellular-decomposers that live mainly on decaying organic matter
plasmodial slime molds
type of protist that has ameboid cells, flagellated cells, and a plasmodial feeding stage in its life cycle
plasmodium
A single mass of cytoplasm containing many diploid nuclei that forms during the life cycle of some slime molds.
cellular slime molds
A type of protist that has unicellular amoeboid cells and aggregated reproductive bodies in its life cycle.
gymnamoebas
Naked cells without conspicuous structures, mostly aquatic and terrestrial. What most people think of as amoebae.
entamoebas
belong to amoeboxoans; include free living and parsitic species, infect all classes of vertebrates as well as some invertebrates; we host at least 6 species, cept one-E histolytica
opisthokont
organisms that descended from an ancestor with a posterior flagellum, including fungi, animals, and certain protists.
producers
organisms that make their own food
Endoplasmic Reticulum
internal membrane system in cells in which lipid components of the cell membrane are assembled and some proteins are modified
Phospholipid bilayer
Molecules that are constituents of the inner bilayer of biological membranes, having a polar, hydrophilic head and a nonpolar, hydrophobic tail.
endosymbiosis
Process through which early prokaryotic cells are thought to have engulfed other, smaller cells and eventually incorporated them as organelles; these cells evolved into modern-day eukaryotes.
Hydrophilic
having a strong affinity for water
Hydrophobic
lacking affinity for water
ribosomes
non membrane bounded organelles responsible for protein synthesis
Lysosomes, Centrioles, Flagella
In animal cells but not plant cells are ____________, ____________, and ____________
Diplomonads, Parabasilids, Euglenozoans
_____________, ______________, and _____________ Belong to the Excavata phylum of protists