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Psychology Exam I Compilation

For PGS 101 at ASU
STUDY
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sensation
The stimulus of the sense organs.
perception
What the stimulus of the sense organs is interpreted to be
supraliminal
Conciouss perception
subliminal
Subconciouss perception
adaptation
Sensory _________ is where one only perceives changes to the stimuli.
distal
__________ stimuli comes from outside of the body.
proximal
__________ stimuli is energy that plays on the sensory organs.
perceptual
__________ hypothesis tries to make sense of stimulus.
light waves
What is the stimulus of vision?
amplitude
What determines the height or brightness of light waves?
wavelength
What determines the frequency, length, or "hue" of light waves?
purity
What determines of the saturations of light waves?
lens
This part of the eye focuses the image onto the retina.
pupil
This part of the eye regulates the amount of light passing through.
retina
This part of the eye projects images upside down.
fovia
This part of the eye is at the center of the retina and is composed of nothing but cones.
rods
These parts of the eye are needed for night and peripheral vision.
cones
These parts of the eye are needed for daylight and color vision.
30
It takes about _______ minutes to fully adjust for dramatic changes in lighting.
optic chiasm
The ________ _________ is the point at which the optic nerves from the inside half of each eye cross over and then project to the opposite half of the brain.
simple
________ cells are feature detectors that are specific to width, orientation, and position.
complex
________ cells are feature detectors that are specific to width and orientation.
hypercomplex
________ cells are feature detectors that are specific to width.
trichromatic
The __________ theory of color vision states that there are three different kinds of cells called "cones" that are responsible for presenting color. For colors other than the base three (red, blue, and green) there is color mixing.
complimentary
The oppenent process theory argues that there are __________ colors to explain the phenomena of after images.
feature analysis
This form perception theory states that perception is based on the established shapes that make up the image.
figure/ground
This Gestalt principle is where one cannot see both sides of an image concurrently.
proximity
This Gestalt principle is where things nearby each other seem to belong together.
similarity
This Gestalt principle is where similar elements are grouped.
continuity
This Gestalt principle is where points can be connect by an imaginary line.
closure
This Gestalt principle is where similar elements are grouped to create a sense of completeness.
common region
This Gestalt principle is where objects in the same region are grouped.
connectedness
This Gestalt principle is where group information is connected between groups.
binocular
This kind of depth perception involves the interaction between the two eyes.
monocular
This kind of depth perception involves the individual eye.
retinal disparity, convergence
Name the two binocular cues.
linear perspective, relative size, interposition, texture gradient, height in plane, shadowing
Name the six monocular cues.
color, size, shape
What three things contribute to a sense of perceptual consistency?
sound waves
What is the stimulus for the auditory system?
waveheight (db)
What is the amplitude of sound waves measured in?
pitch (Hz)
What is the wavelength of sound waves measured in?
timbre
What is the purity of sound waves measured in?
20; 20,000
Human hearing capacity is from _____ to _____ Hz.
outer
The pinna and ear canal are part of the ________ ear.
hammer, anvil, stirrup
What are the three ossicles found in the middle ear?
inner
The _________ ear consists of the conchlea and the basilar membrane (or celia).
place; frequency
The two theories of pitch perception are the _______ theory and the ________ theory.
soluble chemicals
What are the stimuli of the gustatory system?
sweet, sour, bitter, salty, unami
List the four primary tastes in addition to the unproven taste.
soluble chemicals
What are the stimuli of the olfactory system?
olfactory celia
What are the receptors for the olfactory system?
themal, chemical, or mechanical energy
What are the stimuli for the tactile system?
nerve cells
What are the receptors for the tactile system?
temperature, pain, pressure, touch
List the four basic skin senses.
CIP (congenetal insensitivity to pain)
What is the name of the disorder where one cannot feel anything?
kinesthetic
The ____________ system keeps track of the location and position of your body parts.
vestibular
The ____________ system keeps track of the body's position relative to gravity.
synesthesia
This is a phenomena involving cross wiring between or within senses.
phrenology
The study of scalps where different personality traits are associated to different places of the skull.
Franz Gall
The founder of phrenology
glia cells
Cells that provide structure and insulation for the nerves.
neurons
Cells that receive, integrate, and transmit information.
-70 mV
What is the resting potential of neurons?
positive
The action potential of neurons increases as the charge gets more and more __________.
absolute refractory period
This is where a neuron cannot fire immediately after firing previously.
excitatory
The postsynaptic potential is ___________ when it is more likely to fire, or is positive.
inhibitory
The postsynaptic potential is ___________ when it is less likely to fire, or is negative.
terminal buttons
The axon ends in a cluster of these small knovs that secrete neurotransmitters for activating neurons.
reuptake
This sponges up the neurotransmitters
enzyme activation
The process by which neurotransmitters are broken down.
dopamine
Too much of this neurotransmitter can cause schizophrenia.
seratonin
Not enough of this neurotransmitter can cause depression.
norepinephrine
Too much of this neurotransmitter can cause anxiety.
GABA
Not enough of this neurotransmitter can cause overeating.
endorphins
This neurotransmitter reduces pain.
acetylcholine
Not enough of this neurotransmitter can cause dementia and memory loss.
agonists
These types of drugs excite neurotransmitters by either micking them or by blocking reuptake.
antagonists
These types of drugs inhibit neurotransmitters by either inhibiting release or by blocking receptors.
central nervous system
This system of nerves includes those found in the brain and the spinal cord.
peripheral nervous system
This system of nerves includes all of those outside of the brain and spinal cord.
somatic nervous system
This system of nerves includes those going to and from voluntary muscles and sensory receptors.
afferent
__________ fibers connect to the brain.
efferent
__________ fibers connect from the brain.
autonomic nervous system
This system of nerves includes those going to and from automatic functions.
sympathetic nervous system
This system of nerves is part of the autonomic nervous system and is responsable for mobilizing resources.
parasympathetic nervous system
This system of nerves is part of the autonomic nervous system and is responsable for conserving resources.
spinal cord
How does the brain communicate with the body and vice versa?
speed
The __________ of the communication within the central nervous system is determined by the type of fiber and the distance traveled.
contralaterality
________________ refers to something being positioned on the opposite side of the body. For example, the right arm and the left.
frontal
The _________ lobe of the brain is used for higher level functioning, such as decision making, movement, and impulse control.
parietal
The _________ lobe of the brain is used for processing tactile information.
occipital
The _________ lobe of the brain is used for processing visual information.
temporal
The _________ lobe of the brain is used for the olfactory, auditory, and gustatory senses, as well as for processing language.
lower brain stem & cerebellum
These two parts of the brain control basic life functions and drives as well as memory and emotion.
higher cerebral hemisphere
This part of the brain functions via neural networks and controls perception, thought, and language.
thalamus
This part of the lower brain processes sensory information.
hypothalamus
This part of the lower brain regulates instincts.
cerebral cortex, cerebral hemispheres, corpus callosum
What are the three major parts of the cerebrum, or higher brain?
corpus callosum
This connects the two hemispheres of the brain.
left
The ______ hemisphere of the brain specializes in verbal processes.
right
The ______ hemisphere of the brain is specializes in non-verbal processes.
neurogenesis
This is the rare phenomena of the brain being able to regrow dead brain cells.
plasticity
This is the ability of the brain to rewire.
EEG
This measures electrical voltage or brain waves.
CAT & MRI
These provide an X-ray of the brain structures.
PET
This measures brain activity
fMRI
This measures brain activity without the need for a radioactive injection.
chromosomes
DNA composes these.
alleles
Genes are composed of a pair of these.
monogenic
A characteristic that is controlled by a single pair of genes is _____________.
polygenic
A characteristic that is controlled by multiple pairs of genes is _____________.
20; 70
Genes account for ____% to ____% of the variations found in every human behavior.
Qualitative
The purpose of this research method is to explore.
Quantitative
The purpose of this research method is to describe, compare, and test.
qualitative survey, natural observation, case study
Name the three methods by which one can go about conducting a Qualitative study.
descriptive, correlational, experimental
Name the three methods by which one can go about conducting a Quantitative study.
qualitative survey
This kind of study involves measuring the opinions or attitudes of the public through questionaires and the like.
natural observation
This kind of study involves observing public behavior while making sure not the intervene in the natural conditions of said behavior.
case study
This kind of study involves interviews, observations, records, and testing to examine unsual or infrequent phenomena.
descriptive research
This kind of study involves learning descriptive information about a group or event through the use of records, surveys, interviews, and observations.
mean
The average
median
The middle number - used if there are any extremes or outlyers
mode
The most frequent
percentages
Use for categories
correlation research
This kind of study involves investigating possible relationships between two or more different variables, although it is limited in that it cannot determine cause and effect.
-1.00 to +1.00
What is the range of the correlation coefficient (R)?
increases
When the correlation coefficient (R) is positive, then when one variable increases the other ________.
decreases
When the correlation coefficient (R) is negative, then when one variable increases the other ________.
experiments
These kinds of studies involve drawing cause & effect conclusions by manipulating a variable under controlled conditions.
independent variable
This variable is the one that the experiment manipulates.
dependent variable
This variable is the outcome thought to be affected by a change in the independent variable.
experimental group
This is the test group that receives the independent variable.
control group
This is the test group that doesn't receive the independent variable.
randomly
In order for your study to be a true experiment participants must be assigned into groups _________.
experiments
Keywords: cause, lead to, results in, affects
correlational research
Keywords: relationships, related, linked, associated
descriptive research
Keywords: describe, demographics, composition
qualitative survey
Keywords: opinions, attitudes
natural observation
Keywords: public behavior
case study
Keywords: unusual or inferquent phenomena
significantly different
What does it mean when the p-value is less than .05?
not significant
What does it mean when the p-value is greater than .10?
marginally significant
What does it mean when the p-value is inbetween .05 and .10?
Wundt & Tichner
These two psychologists favored the study of Structuralism.
Wundt
This early psychologist established psychology as a displine, as well as the first psych lab and journal in Germany.
G. Stanley Hall
He was the first American psychologist who founded the first psychology lab and psychology journal in America. He also founded the APA.
American Psychology Association
What does APA stand for?
Hall & James
These two psychologists favored the study of Functionalism.
Watson
This psychologist favored the study of Behaviorism.
Rogers & Maslow
These two psychologists favored the study of Humanistic psychology.
Freud
This psychologist favored the study of psychoanalysis.
William Shakespeare
Who is considered the first "honary" psychologist?
empiricism, philosophy, physiology
Name the three main precursors to psychology.
structuralism
The study of the structure of consciousness
functionalism
The study of the functions of consciousness
behaviorism
The study of observable behavior that established research methods in the field of psychology.
Gestalt
___________ psychology argues that the whole is greater than the sum of the parts.
psychoanalysis
This theory of psychology attempts to explain personality, motivation, and mental disorders by focusing on unconscious determinants of behavior.
humanism
This theory of psychology emphasizes the unique qualities of humans, especially their freedom and their potential for personal growth.
biological
_____________ psychology argues that an organism's functioning can be explained in terms of the bodily structures and biochemical processes that underlie behavior.
evolutionary
_____________ psychology argues that behavior patterns have evolved to solve adaptive problems, and that natural selection favors behaviors that enhance reproductive sucess.
Cognitive Revolution
The ____________ ______________ was the result of the advent of computers.
Methodological Revolution
What transformational factor occured in the 1920s?
applied psychology, immigrants
What transformational factors occured during World War II?
cognitive revolution
What transformational factor occured in the early 1970s.