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Sociology 200 - Chapter 12
what started the agricultural revolution?
the ability to plant/farm, making sedentary life possible
what does sedentary life allow members of the agricultural revolution?
what effect does the progression from one revolution to the next have on social order?
each successive revolution requires more structured social order
what does the industrial revolution bring about?
specialized work, a surplus of labor, city development, urban movement
why did the industrial revolution result in a surplus of labor?
farming requires a lot of workers
what does the information revolution bring about?
outsourcing and importing, supposed to create a global niche to be an international hub, working from home, welfare capitalism
the 5 government powers
legal, discretionary, social, coercive/military, expert
the social institution that organizes a society's production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services
the primary sector of the economy
the part of the economy that draws raw materials from the natural environment
the secondary sector of the economy
part of the economy that transforms raw materials into manufactured goods
the tertiary sector of the economy
the part of the economy that involves services rather than goods
an economic and political system that combines a mostly market0based economy with extensive social welfare programs
under welfare capitalism, a nation's government owns
some of the largest industries and services (such as transporation, the mass media, and health care)
an economic and political system in which companies are privately owned but cooperate closel with the government
a political system in which a single family rules from generation to generation
a political system that gives power to the people as a whole
a political system that denies the people participation in government
a highly centralized political system that extensively regulates peoples' lives
a system of government agencies and programs that provides benefits to the population
the pluralist model
an analysis of politics that sees power as spread among many competing interest group
the power-elite model
an analysis of politics that sees power as concentrated among the rich
the marxist political-economy model
an analysis that explains politics in terms of the operation of a societ's economic system
which analysis of politics goes with structural-functionalism?
the pluralist model
which analysis of politics goes with social conflict?
the power elite and marxist political-economy models
according to the pluralist model, how is power spead throughout society?
widely so that all groups have some voice
according to the pluralist model, is the u.s. a democracy?
yes because power is spread widely enough
according to the power-elite model, how is power spread througout society?
concentrated in the hands of top business, political, and military leaders
according to the power elite model, is the u.s. a democracy?
no because power is too concentrated
according to the marxist political economy model, how is power spread throughout society?
directed by the operation of the capitalist economy
according to the marxist political economy model, is the u.s. a democracy?
no because the capitalist economy sets political decision making
what are the four things that lead to political revolution?
rising expectations, unresponsive government, radical leadership by intellectuals, establishing a new legitimacy
the five causes of war
perceived threats, social problems, political objectives, moral objectives, the absence of alternatives
the four ways to pursue peace
deterrence, high-technology defense, diplomacy and disarmament, resolving underlying conflict