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Psych Exam 1
Terms in this set (85)
established the first psychological laboratory in Germany; father of psychology
G. Stanley Hall
american psycholgist who established the first psychology research laboratory in the united states and founded the american psychological association
introduced structualism (discovering elements of mind) engaged people in introspection
United States geneticist who (with Crick in 1953) helped discover the helical structure of DNA (born in 1928)
United States psychologist who developed client-centered therapy (1902-1987)
hierarchy of needs
Psychologist who developed psychoanalysis, a method of probing the unconscious mind, frequently by analyzing dreams. He believed that humans were driven by unconscious pleasure-seeking forces.
First Honorary Psychologist
Precursors to Psychology
a sociological theory based on the premise that society comes before individuals
a psychology based on the assumption that all mental process are useful to an organism in adapting to the environment
a theory that psychology is essentially a study of external human behavior rather than internal consciousness and desires.
A psychological approach that emphasizes that we often perceive the whole rather than the sum of the parts
Freud's theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts; the techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions
Humans are free, rational beings with the potential for personal growth, and they are fundamentally different from animals
An organism's functioning can be explained in terms of the bodily structures and bio-chemical processes information
Behavior patterns have evolved to solve adaptive problems; natural selection favors behaviors that enhance reproductive success
Human behavior cannot be fully understood without examining how people acquire, store, and process information
Research that relies on what is seen in field or naturalistic settings more than on statistical data
Research that collects and reports data primarily in numerical form
A survey which indicates if a species is present or not
observing behavior as it takes places in the environment
a detailed analysis of a person or group from a social or psychological or medical point of view
answers scientific questions through observation
an average of n numbers computed by adding some function of the numbers and dividing by some function of n
the middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it
the most frequent value of a random variable
research technique based on the naturally occurring relationship between two or more variables
Interpreting Correlational Coefficients
measure of the strength of the straight-line or linear relationship between two variables.
It is a collection of research designs which use manipulation and controlled testing to understand causal processes.
Glia cells, or also known as glial cells, are the support structure for the central nervous system
variable being tested in a scientific experiment
variable that is changed in a scientific experiment to test the effects on the dependent variable
The experimental group is where the actual experiment is taking place
a group separated from the rest of the experiment where the independent variable being tested cannot influence the results
an experimental technique for assigning subjects to different treatments (or no treatment)
he probability of obtaining a test statistic at least as extreme as the one that was actually observed, assuming that the null hypothesis is true
is a pseudoscience primarily focused on measurements of the human skull, based on the concept that the brain is the organ of the mind, and that certain brain areas have localized, specific functions or modules
The relatively static membrane potential of quiescent cells
a short-lasting event in which the electrical membrane potential of a cell rapidly rises and falls, following a consistent trajectory
Absolute Refractory Period
a period of time during which an organ or cell is incapable of repeating a particular action, or (more precisely) the amount of time it takes for an excitable membrane to be ready for a second stimulus once it returns to its resting state following an excitation
changes in the membrane potential of the postsynaptic terminal of a chemical synapse.
Terminal Button (bouton)
ocated at the end of the neuron and are responsible for sending the signal on to other neurons
Reuptake & Enzyme Activation
neurotransmitters are sponged up
NTS are broken down
endogenous chemicals that transmit signals from a neuron to a target cell across a synapse
a chemical that binds to a receptor of a cell and triggers a response by that cell. Agonists often mimic the action of a naturally occurring substance.
a character, group of characters, or institution, that represents the opposition against which the protagonist must contend
Central Nervous System
the part of the nervous system that integrates the information that it receives from, and coordinates the activity of, all parts of the bodies of bilaterian animals
Peripheral Nervous System
consists of the nerves and ganglia outside of the brain and spinal cord.
Speed of Neural Message
control of one side of your body by the other side of your brain
Frontal, Parietal, Temporal, Occipital
Lower Brain Stem & Cerebellum
Midbrain, Pons, Medulla oblongata; a major division of the vertebrate brain
term used to describe the fact the two hemisheres of the brain are designed to handle specific tasks (Left - logic, language; Right - creativity, spatial reasoning, art, emotion)
Plasticity of Brain
Brain is constantly changing, within limits - it changes rapidly in early development and continues changing throughout life
threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes; Deoxyribonucleic acid
sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait
Monogenic & Polygenic
-monogenic: characteristic determined by a single gene
-polygenic: traits controlled by two or more gene pairs
Sensation vs. Perception
Sensation is arrival of info to brain, perception is interpretation of info in brain
diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation
Distal stimuli, Proximal stimuli
realist-call them as they are), idealist -call em as i see them), pragmatist -aint nothing till i call em), Distal: in the environment
Proximal: get it from the environment
Example: Dismal- person playing guitar
Proximal- hearing the soundwaves
One dismal gives off many proximal
an inference about which distal stimuli could be responsible for the proximal stimuli sensed
Light Waves: Amplitude, Wavelength, Purity
have medium-sized wavelengths, consist of tiny particles of radiation travel fast and straight, they don't require a material to travel through, and they can move through a vacuum., greatness of magnitude, the distance (measured in the direction of propagation) between two points in the same phase in consecutive cycles of a wave, being undiluted or unmixed with extraneous material
biconvex transparent body situated behind the iris in the eye
contractile aperture in the iris of the eye
the light-sensitive membrane covering the back wall of the eyeball
The point on the retina on which the light is focused.
Rods & Cones
visual receptors that transduce light neural impulses. The rods are concentrated in the periphery of the retina, the cones in the fovea.
the crossing of the optic nerves from the two eyes at the base of the brain
Form Perception Theories
eplains vision, features detector cells
Principles that describe the brain's organization of sensory information into meaningful units and patterns.
changes in air pressure caused when the molecules of air or fluid collide with one another and move apart again
the sensory system for hearing
human hearing capacity
hearing sounds ranging from 20 Hz up to a high of about 20,000 Hz
the part of the ear visible externally
the main cavity of the ear
a complex system of interconnecting cavities
different tones excite different areas of the basilar membrane and primary auditory cortex
The sensory system for taste
The sensory system for smell.
The sensory system that monitors the positions of the various parts of one's body.
three semicircular canals that provide the sense of balance, located in the inner ear and connected to the brain by a nerve
Study of interrelationships between humans, the tools they use, & the environment in which they live & work.
sensory experiences may overlap so a patient may "hear" a color or "taste" a sound, phenomenon found in LSD users
the registration of sensory input without conscious awareness
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