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ESL Praxis - Theory and Practice
Terms in this set (43)
Krashen's (and others) Language Acquisition Theory that states language is acquired in a natural order
P of pepsi-a from Krashen's L.A.T. 1-3 months. Non-verbal responses, active listening, student understands more than is able to produce. Teacher should use gestures and not force speech.
E and P of pepsi-a. Student speaks in one or two word utterances and short phrases, mostly present tense verbs. Teacher should require yes/no responses, model correct responses, maintain low affective filter.
S of pepsi-a. Up to one year. Student should participate in small groups, use short phrases and sentences, more free language. Teacher should ask open ended questions to stimulate language use, use performance-based assessment.
I of pepsi-a. 3-5 years. Students have difficulty with abstract, cognitively demanding subjects, few grammatical errors, excellent oral comprehension. Teacher should make interactive lessons, teaching thinking/study skills.
Another name for 'preproduction', students use gestures to demonstrate understanding.
Krashen's Natural Approach
Focus on natural, purposeful communication until speech "emerges". Aimed at learning BICS language skills.
Krashen's Affective Filter
Students acquire knowledge through a filter, when the filter is down - information can pass through and learning can occur. When the filter is up (high anxiety), information can be blocked. (think car window)
Cummin's CUP model
CUP - Cognitive Underlying Proficiency (think double-tipped iceberg). Concepts learned in one language are transferable to the other.
Cummin's Student Support Schema
Cognitively demanding and Context embedded. i.e. Doing a word search may be context embedded and engaging, but it is not cognitively demanding.
Cummins' social theory. Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills. Students learn social/conversational speech first.
Cummins' academic language theory. Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency. 7+ years for proficiency. Proficiency in CALP means the student needs few nonverbal cues, can process the abstract and content specific vocabulary.
L2 learner wants to learn the L2 to achieve a goal (for a career)
L2 learner wants to learn the L2 to integrate with the culture (for immigration, marriage, travel, anything to be socially involved)
AKA Stabilization. The student has plateaued in their learning of their L2. The errors made by the speaker are "fossilized" to the point that he/she doesn't "hear" the correct use. The speaker is relatively fluent in L2.
Children are born with an innate capacity to learn language. Innate knowledge is universal grammar that is in all languages.
Chomsky's theory of an area in the brain called the Language Acquisition Device (LAD).
Critical Period Hypothesis
Chomsky's hypothesis that says there is a critical window for acquiring knowledge.
Older theory stating that language is best acquired via memorization. Learning is not contextualized.
(Pavlov and Skinner) Learning is based on stimulus response.
Older theory where learning is based in Latin and Greek. Focus on grammar rules, syntactic structures, and rote memorization. More time talking about language than using language.
Older Theory stating that language is best learned by listening, not using the L1 and connecting words/phrases with objects/actions.
AKA the army method. Characterized by pattern drills and dialogue. Language acquisition is done via memorization and recall.
Student centered, language is learned for communication, teacher's role is to provide a context for authentic communication.
Chomsky. Theory of the innate ability to learn a language, the brain draws from experiences, and learning is a result of environmental interaction.
Teacher is silent. Students observe situations and then describe it with the target language being focused on the actions they saw. L1 not used. Learning is self-motivated and self-corrected
Krashen's Natural approach. Language develops predictably, comprehension precedes production, interactivity is important to lower the affective filter and communicative goals should guide instruction.
Says that a fear of language learning prohibits rapid acquisition. Relaxing environment is crucial. Instruction connects L1 and L2, implements conversation. Lack of resources can hurt.
Community Language Learning
Similar to natural approach. Students choose what to learn and collaborate with others. Teacher guides learning. L1 is encouraged.
Traditional Languge learning model. Listening then Speaking then reading and then writing.
Writing, reading, speaking, listening. Assumes that learning happens quicker because writing is private.
Learner focused, explicit teaching of learning strategies for content and language.
Cognitive Academic Language Approach. Development of academic language skills & explicit instruction for content and language. Scaffolded instruction. Explicit instruction of learning strategies and development of critical thinking to acquire language proficiency. Based in the cognitive approach.
Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach
Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol.
8 Components. 1)Preparation, 2) Building Background (connections to b.k.), 3) Comprehensible Input. i.e. visuals, realia, modeling, step-by-step directions. 4) Learning Strategies. 5) Interaction. 6)Practice and Application. 7) Lesson Delivery. 8) Review/Assessment.
Zone of Proximal Development. Krashen calls it i+1, best instruction is just beyond the student's current level.
Total Physical Response. Physical response to teacher cues.
Assists LEP students in transferring from home language to school language. Keeps students at grade level academically while they learn the L2.
Dual Immersion Education
Native and Non-Native speakers work together, both learning in 2 languages. Emphasis on grade level instruction, strong peer leadership, and dual parent involvement.
Transitional Bilingual Education
Says students can best learn L2 by being proficient in their L1. Goal is to transition into an English-only classroom as quickly as possible. Typically 3 years.
Least effective model. Usually elementary
ESL Collaboration/Push In
Requires team teaching and team planning. Uses standards based methodologies.
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