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NBCOT, Development of Release, Reaching, and Grasping Patterns
Terms in this set (39)
Release: 0-1 months
No release - strong grasp reflex present.
Release: 1-4 months
Mutual fingering at midline.
Release: 4-9 months
Transfers object from hand to hand.
2-stage transfer: taking hand grasps before releasing hand lets go.
--> 1-stage transfer: taking and releasing hands perform actions simultaneously.
--> Voluntary release
--> Release with full-arm extension
Release: 7-10 months
press down on surface to release.
--> releases above surface w/ wrist flexion.
--> releases into container w/ wrist straight.
Release: 10-14 months
Clumsy release into small container (hand rests on edge).
Release: 12-15 months
Precise, controlled release into small container w/ wrist extension.
Visual regard, swiping/batting (reaching)
Reaching: 4 months
Hands together @ midline, BILATERAL reaching
Reaching: 6 months
Reaching: 9 months
some supination and wrist extension (more complex movements)
Pellet/Cube Grasp: natal
no voluntary grasp/visual attention (reflexes present)
Pellet/Cube Grasp: 3 months
NO grasp, visually attends
Pellet Grasp: 6 months
raking/contacting object (small)
Inferior Scissor grasp
Raking object (small) into palm, flexed digits
Between thumb and side of curled index finger (pellet)
Inferior pincer grasp
Between volar surface of thumb and index (small object)
Beginning of thumb opposition
Between distal pads of thumb and index
Fine Pincer grasp
Between fingertip/finger nails
Squeezes between two hands or hand/body, NO thumb involved (cube)
Fingers on top, presses into palm center (cube)
Fingers press object into opposed thumb
Held with opposed thumb and finger tips (space visible at web) (cube)
Primitive Squeeze Grasp (4 months)
Visually attends to object, approaches if within 1 in., contact results in hand pulling object back to squeeze precariously against the other hand or body, no thumb involvement.
Palmar Grasp (5 months)
Fingers on top of surface of object press it into center of palm with thumb
Radial Palmar Grasp (6 months)
Fingers on far side of object press it against opposed thumb and radial side of palm with wrist straight.
Radial-Digital Grasp (8 months)
Object held with the opposed thumb and fingertips, space visible between with wrist extended.
Inferior Pincer Grasp (9 months)
Between ventral surfaces of thumb and index finger, distal thumb joint extended, beginning of thumb opposition.
Fine Pincer Grasp (12 months)
Infant places between fingertips or fingernails, distal thumb joint flexed.
Palmar Supinate Grasp (1 - 1.5 years)
Held with fisted hand, wrist slightly flexed and slightly supinated away from mid-position; arm moves as a unit
Digital Palmar Grasp (2 - 3 years)
Held with fingers, wrist neutral with slight ulnar deviation, and forearm pronated; arm moves as a unit.
Static Tripod Posture (3.5 - 4 years)
Held with crude approximation of thumb, index, and middle fingers, ring and little fingers only slightly flexed, grasped proximally with continuous adjustments by other hand, no fine localized movements of digit components; hand moves as a unit.
Dynamic Tripod Posture (4.5 - 6 years)
Held with precise opposition of distal phalanges of thumb, index, and middle fingers, ring and little fingers flexed to form a stable arch, wrist slightly extended, grasped distally, MCP joints stabilized during fine, localized movements of PIP joints.
no voluntary grasp or visual attention to object
no attempt at grasp; visually attend to object
raking and contact object
inferior scissor grasp: raking into palm with adducted flexed thumb, all fingers flexed
inferior pincer grasp: ventral surface of thumb and index
pincer grasp: pads of index and thumb touching (opposition)
fine pincer grasp: between tips or nails
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