Fever, cough, myalgia, malaise, sore throat, nasal discharge (sneezing makes it less likely)
What is the most sensitive/specific test for influenza?
RT-PCR (nasopharyngeal swabs)
What factors are predictive of poor outcomes from influenza?
Age >65 People who: are pregnant, have chronic diseases, are immunocompromised, obese, have Down syndrome Aged care facility residents ATSI Homeless
Reasons for using antivirals against influenza?
1) For individual benefit (at risk of poor outcomes, or already have poor outcomes like complications) 2) To reduce transmission (eg. inpatients, aged care facility residents, people with household contacts who are at risk of poor outcomes)
What two classes of antivirals are active against influenza? What are some examples?
1) Neuraminidase inhibitors (active against flu A and B) - Oseltamavir - Zanamivir 2) Adamantanes (flu A only) - Amantadine
Side effects of neuraminidase inhibitors?
Nausea and vomiting
How long is the incubation period for influenza? How long is viral shedding?
Incubation 1-4 days, viral shedding from 1 day before till 1 week after becoming symptomatic (longer in immunosuppressed)
What is the most common complication of influenza?