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46 terms

Intro to Psychology (3)

Ch. 3: Biological Psychology
STUDY
PLAY
Franz Gall
Personality traits localized to different areas of brain. Said you could determine traits by feeling the skull. Brain does NOT control personality characteristics.
Dr. Wilder Penfield and Electrical Brain Stimulation
Localization of Function supported. Different points of stimulation produced different responses.
Central Nervous System
Brain and Spinal Cord
Peripheral Nervous System
Somatic and Autonomic, Sympathetic and Parasympathetic.
Somatic
Controls voluntary muscles.
Autonomic
Controls involuntary muscles.
Sympathetic
Expends energy; fight or flight response.
Parasympathetic
Conserves energy; rest and relaxation.
3 Parts of Brain
Forebrain, Midbrain, Hindbrain
Hindbrain
Pons, Medulla, Cerebellum
Pons
Fiber bundles that "crosses over." Important in sleep and consciousness.
Medulla
Cough, sneeze, vomit. Overdose and hits to back of head hurt this area.
Pons and Medulla
Vital autonomic functions.
Cerebellum
"Little brain." Execution; required initial learning, but becomes automatic. Sensitive to alcohol.
Midbrain
Visual and auditory reflexes; reflexive behavior. Sensitive to movement in periphery. Blindsightedness.
Blindsightedness
Occurs when people have damage to part of brain that processes visual images we're aware of. Cortical blindness; only blind consciously. Damage to occipital cortez/primary visual cortex.
Forebrain
Largest part of brain. Thalamus, Hypothalamus, Striatum, Limbic System, Amygdola, Cerebral Cortex.
Thalamus
Where all incoming information goes first.
Hypothalamus
Endocrine (hormone) glands; regulates certain behaviors and sends signals to Medulla. Regulates all hormones through control of pituitary glad, which is the master endocrine organ.
Striatum
Layered over Thalamus. 3 parts. Rich in dopamine.
Substantia Nigra (SN)
Provides dopamine to striatum in forebrain.
Parkinson's Disease
Damage to SN. Causes problems with movement. Can no longer provide dopamine.
Deep Brain Stimulation
Treatment for Parkinson's Disease, not a cure. Electrodes placed in striatum.
Limbic System
Involved in memory function and emotional behavior. Can't learn anything new if you have Hippocampus damage.
Amygdola
Helps recognize emotions in others and creates emotional responses.
Cerebral Cortex
Final layer of brain. Bumps (gyrus) and grooves (fissure/sulcus). 4 lobes.
Main functions of lobes
Occipital: vision, temporal: hearing, parietal: body sensations, frontal: memory
Occipital Lobe
Primary visual cortex and vision. Damage=cortical blindness.
Temporal Lobe
Primary auditory cortex. Processing sound, visual processing, and complex shape analysis.
Wernicke's Aphasia
Temporal lobe damage. Can speak clearly, but it is not understandable. Lost auditory vocabulary and meaning of words.
Perception of Movement
Disappears from sight while moving, but can be seen when stopped.
Perception of Color and Brightness
We can see same colors through any filter (like sunglasses or tinted windows).
Visual Agnosia
Can see things, but things aren't recognizable.
Visual Prosopagnosia
Inability to recognize familiar human faces and self. Temporal lobe lesion (damage) and affects memory.
Parietal Lobe
Senses of body. Primary somatosensory cortex.
Sensory Homonculus
Distorted, but represents sensitivity of parts of the body to touch.
Phantom Limb
Occurs with people with amputations or nerve damage. Feels like pain is still in the area, even though limb is gone. Neurons that processed that area still survive, but neighboring regions start to spread and take over.
Unilateral Neglect
Perception of any sensory stimulus on the left side of the patient is ignored (right parietal lobe damage).
Frontal Lobe
Largest lobe. Primary motor cortex. Left frontal lobe=speech production.
Motor Homonculus
Dexterity (how likely you are to exert control over that part) of portion of body.
Parts of Brain that aid in Movement
Striatum, Cerebellum, Motor Cortex
Broca's
Speech production. Changing sounds into words.
Productive Aphasia
Damage to Broca's. Difficult to get words out; "telegraphic" speech. Only content words.
Phineas Gage
Iron from gun backfired and went through his cheek and out of his skull. Couldn't relate to people well; temperament changes. That part of frontal lobe is involved in memory function, executive function, and inhibition of limbic system.
Split Brain
Brain damage in one certain area, but quickly spreads and can spread to other side of brain. Can see images on right visual field because that side is controlled by left side of brain, but not opposite (not connected).
Corpus Callosum
Connects the left and right sides of the brain