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Final Exam Review - Part I
Terms in this set (80)
Basic U.S. geographic features from the East coast to the West coast
Atlantic Ocean, Appalachian Mountains, Mississippi River, Great Plains, Rocky Mountains, Pacific Ocean
Native Americans on the Great Plains roamed from place to place, following the buffalo.
The importance of the buffalo
It provided Plains Indians with everything that they needed to survive (food, clothing, shelter, etc.). Nothing was wasted.
The U.S. government forced Native Americans onto reservation lands to avoid confrontations with settlers.
Farming on the Great Plains
Farming was difficult due to a lack of rain. Dry farming (turning over the soil after it rained) brought some success. Locusts also could destroy crops.
The scarcity of wood on the Great Plains led farmers to build homes out of sod (the top layer of soil). "Bricks" were cut out of the ground and stacked to build homes.
Process whereby cowboys moved herds from Texas, northward to railroad lines. From there they would be shipped to markets in the East.
1849 Gold Rush
Brought large numbers of settlers West to California, and helped America to fulfill its Manifest Destiny.
Carnegie, Rockefeller and J.P. Morgan
Powerful business tycoons that controlled U.S. industries (steel, oil, and Railroads) during the late 1800s.
One person controls an entire industry. The lack of competition leads to higher prices.
Two or more companies work together to eliminate competition and maximize profits.
A business that allows people to buy partial ownership (shares of stock).
A share of a corporation that can be bought and sold. If the business does well its value goes up. If a business does poorly its value goes down.
Profits made on stocks.
Supply and Demand
The basic economic law of our economy. When supply is high and demand is low, prices go down. When supply is low and demand is high, prices go up.
Location of businesses
In the late 1800s, most big businesses were located near waterways in the Northeast.
A severe shortage of food. The potato famine in Ireland led many Irish to immigrate to the United States.
Push and Pull factors
Push factors - bad conditions in their homeland that made people leave (famine, war, pogroms, etc.).
Pull factors - good things in the United States that made immigrants choose to come here (jobs, freedom, food, etc.)
Old Immigrants v. New Immigrants
Old Immigrants - looked the same and spoke the same language as those who were already here (WASP's). They had an easy time fitting in.
New Immigrants - looked different and spoke a different language than those who were already here. They faced discrimination and prejudice from nativists.
The New Colossus
The poem engraved on the base of the Statue of Liberty. "Give me your tired, your poor, your huddled masses yearning to be free..." Welcomes immigrants.
Filthy, crowded, poor neighborhoods where immigrants lived.
Rundown, dirty, crowded apartment buildings.
Muckraker who wrote How the Other Half Lives, desbing the lives of the urban poor who lived in tenements and slums.
Law against trusts. It prevented big businesses from eliminating competition in order to maximize profits.
Workers join together as a group to bargain for better pay, shorter hours, and a safer workplace.
What those who mocked Secretary of State William Seward's purchase of Alaska called it. He purchased Alaska from Russia for $7.2 million.
The Spanish-American War
Started over events in Cuba, a Spanish colony in revolt. The U.S. declared war after the USS Maine exploded in Havana harbor. The U.S. wins. liberates Cuba, and takes Puerto Rico, The Philippines, and Guam.
Sensationalized headlines and stories used by newspapers to boost sales. Yellow journalism caused many American to want war with Spain.
Teddy Roosevelt overseas the building of this waterway which creates a shortcut between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.
Big Stick Policy
Teddy Roosevelt's belief that it was necessary to have a strong military in order to be prepared, and hopefully to avoid conflicts.
Underlying causes of WWI
Militarism - countries build up their militaries
Alliances - 2 or more countries fight together
Nationalism - strong pride in your country
Imperialism - get colonies
Anarchy - no law, no goverment
Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand (and his lovely wife Sophie)
The immediate cause of WWI. The "spark" that lights the "bomb." Triggers a web of alliances.
Trying to stay neutral
Neutrality was our original plan during WWI. The U.S. wanted to trade with both sides, but Britain's blockade of Germany made that impossible.
British Passenger ship bound from NY to London. Sunk by a German u-boat, killing 128 Americans on board.
Allied spies intercept a telegram from Germany, to Mexico, asking Mexico to attack the United States. This was the final straw in a series of events that led America to declare war on Germany.
Woodrow Wilson's plan for a lasting peace after WWI. It was largely ignored by the allies. They instead decided to punish Germany, enacting the Treaty of Versailles.
The rebirth of black culture (art, literature and music) during the 1920s.
The "party girls" of the 1920s. Young women who did not follow traditional standards of dress and behavior.
Period of time in the United States when the 18th Amendment outlawed alcohol. The 21st Amendment later repealed (got rid of) prohibition.
Ford's Assembly Line
The assembly line was used to mass produce automobiles. It made cars more af-FORD-able.
Stock Market Crash of 1929
October 1929, more sellers than buyers causes stock prices to bottom out. Signals the start of the Great Depression.
Many Americans were out of work during the Great Depression. Fighting unemployment was a key goal of FDR's New Deal.
FDR's weekly radio broadcasts that were designed to provide hope, and reassure the American public.
FDR's plan to fight the Depression by providing Relief, Recovery, and Reform.
U.S. President who led us through the Great Depression and WWII.
December 7, 1941. Japan's surprise attack on the American naval base in Hawaii brings the United States into WWII.
The United States rounded up Japanese-Americans and sent them to internment camps during WWII. This violated their constitutional rights.
Women in factories
While the men were off fighting, women helped the U.S. win WWII by manufacturing war materials.
Rosie the Riveter
Symbol and nickname for women working in factories during WWII.
Term used to describe Nazi Germany's murder of 12 million innocent people during WWII.
The United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, bringing an end to WWII. President Truman argued that dropping the bombs saved lives by bringing a rapid end to the war.
Nazi leaders are put on trial at the end of WWII for crimes against humanity, as a result of the Holocaust.
Robert H. Jackson
From Jamestown, NY. The lead prosecutor for the allies during the Nuremberg trials. His work led to the convictions, and death sentences of many Nazi officials.
The Cold War
1945-1991. Period of hostile relations between the United States and the Soviet Union. Both sides wanted to see their system of government spread around the world.
Truman Doctrine/ Marshall Plan
Both gave money to stop the spread of communism following WWII.
U.S. foreign policy after WWII. Wherever the Soviets would try to spread communism, we would try to stop it.
The United States and the United Nations fight to stop the spread of communism from the North to the South (1950-1953). The war ends with the country divide at the 38th //. The north remains communist, the south is democratic.
Bay of Pigs Invasion
Failed attempt by U.S. President John F. Kennedy to use Cuban exiles to overthrow Cuba's communist dictator Fidel Castro.
Cuban Missile Crisis
The U.S. discovered Soviet missile sites in Cuba. It led to a 2 week standoff that nearly resulted in a nuclear war.
The United States sends troops to try and stop the spread of communism from the North to the South. It was a guerrilla war that American soldiers were not accustomed to fighting.
Protest at Home
As the death count in Vietnam rises and rises, more Americans turn against the war. The country spits between Hawks and Doves. Protest sometimes turned violent (Chicago 1968) and deadly (Kent State).
President Lyndon Johnson escalated the war in Vietnam, sending troops at will after congress passed the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution.
Term used to describe an easing of tensions in the Cold War during Nixon's time as President in the 1970s. He signed an arms limitations treaty with the Soviets (SALT), and visited Red China.
Soviet leader during the 1980s who became friendly with President Ronald Reagan. Her reformed the Soviet Union, ultimately leading to an end in the Colds War.
End of the Cold War
In 1991 communism collapses in the USSR. The Soviet Union allows the republics that made up their nation to become independent nations themselves.
Brown v. Board of Education
Supreme Court case that outlaws segregation in public schools.
Political strategy used by Civil Rights activists. It means non-violently disobeying laws that are morally unjust.
Strategy used by Civil Rights activists designed to win the battle for public opinion. Show that you are a quality human being, and your adversary is not.
Refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man. Her arrest led to the Montgomery Bus Boycott.
Martin Luther King Jr.
Leader of the Civil Rights movement who encouraged his followers to use non-violence
Political scandal that led to Richard Nixon's resignation.
53 U.S. diplomats were held hostage in Iran in 1979 for 444 days. President Jimmy Carter is perceived as weak, and it contributes to the election of Ronald Reagan in 1980.
Persian Gulf War
The United States led a multi-national coalition to remove Iraqi troops from Kuwait. Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein had invaded Kuwait for oil.
Trouble in the Middle East
Fighting between Arabs and Jews increased after the creation of Israel in 1948. Many Arab nations have grown to dislike the United States because of our support of Israel.
Using violence to achieve political goals.
The worst terrorist attack in U.S. history. 4 planes were hijacked by Al Qaeda terrorist and flown into the World Trade Center and Pentagon. Nearly 3000 Americans were killed.
NYC & Washington, DC
Targets of 9/11. The World Trade Center in NY was destroyed. The Pentagon (U.S. Military Headquarters) in Washington, DC was also hit. A 4th plane crashed in a field in Pennsylvania after passengers fought the terrorists.
Name of the terrorist organization that claimed responsibility for 9/11.
Osama Bin Laden
Leader of Al Qaeda who planned the 9/11 attacks. He was eventually killed by U.S. Navy Seals after a 10 year manhunt.
2008 Presidential Election
Barack Obama wins, becoming America's first African-American President.