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the removal or destruction of all forms of microbial life sterilant


sterilizating agent

commercial sterilization

sufficient heat treatment to kill endospores of Clostridium botulinum in canned food


destruction of vegetative pathogens


destruction of vegetative pathogens on living tissue


removal of microbes from a limited area such as the skin around an injection site


treatedment intended to lower microbial counts on eating and drinking utensils to safe public health levels


kill microorganisms


inhibid the growth and multiplication of bateria


bacterial contamination


object or area is free of pathogens

thermal death point

lowest temperature at which all the microorganisms in a particular liquid suspension will be killed in 10 minutes

thermal death time

minimal length of time for all bacteria in a particular liquid culture to be killed at a given temperature

decimal reduction time

the time in which 90% of a population of bacteria at a given temperature will be killed

equivaltent treatments

as the temperature is increased, much less time is needed to kill the same number of microbes

ionizing radiation

less that 1nm carries much more energy forms active hydroxyl radicals and react to cellular components

nonionizing radiation

greater than 1nm and is considerably paired with UV light; damages DNA of exposed cells by acting with bases such as thymine


carbolic acid used to control surgical infections in the operating room


contain a molecule of phenol that has been chemically altered to reduce its irritating qualities or increase its antibacterial activity in combination with a soap or detergent; injure lipid containing plasma membranes


derivatives of phelnol that contain two phenolic groups connected by a bridge


particularly iodine and chlorine are effective antimicrobial agents


solution in aqueous alcohol and is an iodophor


combination of iodine and an organic molecule from which the iodine is released slowly


produces hypochlrous acid when added with water and it is germicidal; strong oxidizing agent that prevents the cellular enzyme from functioning


effectively kill bacteria and fungi but not endospores and nonenveloped viruses

oligodynamic action

the ability of very small amounts of heavy metals to exert antimicrobial activity

surface active agents and surfactants

can decrease surface tension among molecules of a liquid

quaternary ammonium compounds

cationic detergent; strongly bactericidal against gram positive bacteria and less active against gram negative bacterial; fungicidal, amoebidical, and virucidal


reaction of nitrites with amino acids the form carcinogenic products


most effective antimicrobials because they inactivate proteins by forming covalent cross links with several organic functional groups on proteins


exert antimicrobial activity by oxidizing cellular components of treated microbes

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