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31 terms

Chapter 7 The Control of Microbial Growth

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sterilization
the removal or destruction of all forms of microbial life sterilant
sterilant
sterilizating agent
commercial sterilization
sufficient heat treatment to kill endospores of Clostridium botulinum in canned food
disinfection
destruction of vegetative pathogens
antisepsis
destruction of vegetative pathogens on living tissue
degerming
removal of microbes from a limited area such as the skin around an injection site
sanitization
treatedment intended to lower microbial counts on eating and drinking utensils to safe public health levels
biocide
kill microorganisms
bacteriostasis
inhibid the growth and multiplication of bateria
sepsis
bacterial contamination
asepsis
object or area is free of pathogens
thermal death point
lowest temperature at which all the microorganisms in a particular liquid suspension will be killed in 10 minutes
thermal death time
minimal length of time for all bacteria in a particular liquid culture to be killed at a given temperature
decimal reduction time
the time in which 90% of a population of bacteria at a given temperature will be killed
equivaltent treatments
as the temperature is increased, much less time is needed to kill the same number of microbes
ionizing radiation
less that 1nm carries much more energy forms active hydroxyl radicals and react to cellular components
nonionizing radiation
greater than 1nm and is considerably paired with UV light; damages DNA of exposed cells by acting with bases such as thymine
phenol
carbolic acid used to control surgical infections in the operating room
phenolics
contain a molecule of phenol that has been chemically altered to reduce its irritating qualities or increase its antibacterial activity in combination with a soap or detergent; injure lipid containing plasma membranes
biphenols
derivatives of phelnol that contain two phenolic groups connected by a bridge
halogens
particularly iodine and chlorine are effective antimicrobial agents
tincture
solution in aqueous alcohol and is an iodophor
iodophor
combination of iodine and an organic molecule from which the iodine is released slowly
chlorine
produces hypochlrous acid when added with water and it is germicidal; strong oxidizing agent that prevents the cellular enzyme from functioning
alcohols
effectively kill bacteria and fungi but not endospores and nonenveloped viruses
oligodynamic action
the ability of very small amounts of heavy metals to exert antimicrobial activity
surface active agents and surfactants
can decrease surface tension among molecules of a liquid
quaternary ammonium compounds
cationic detergent; strongly bactericidal against gram positive bacteria and less active against gram negative bacterial; fungicidal, amoebidical, and virucidal
nitrosamines
reaction of nitrites with amino acids the form carcinogenic products
aldehydes
most effective antimicrobials because they inactivate proteins by forming covalent cross links with several organic functional groups on proteins
peroxygens
exert antimicrobial activity by oxidizing cellular components of treated microbes