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American Journey-- Cumulative
Terms in this set (48)
Name the Initial Interactions between the Old World and the New World
The Native Americans initially welcomed the conquistadors, but they took advantage of the hospitality and brought the empires to their knees.
Which religious and political movements influence American ideals?
(pg 128) The Great Awakening: Greater religious and political freedom, colonists chose to believe in their own faith. Religious revival spread through the colonies beginning in 1730s. Americans more likely to challenge authority
Hobbes and Locke
Developed very different theories about how England's government should work.
(1588-1679) Political theorist who argued absolute monarchy was the best form of government. Thought humans were naturally selfish and violent.
1632-1704. He affirmed citizens rights. Government was answerable to the people. Argued that government exists to protect "life, liberty, and property" More optimistic about human nature. away.
The sequence of acts by Britain on her colonies and the colonial responses:
For many years Great Britain allowed American colonies the freedom to run their local affairs. However, they controlled their trade with mercantilism. To control trade, Britain passes a series of laws called Navigation Acts in the 1650s, they had to sell their raw materials to Britain, even if they could get a better price elsewhere. Any goods bought by the colonies from other countries in Europe had to go to England first to be taxed before they could be sent to America. At first colonies accepted these laws. Later they became resistant. They began smuggling goods without paying taxes. Control on trade would cause conflict.
Battles of the American Revolution
- Battle of Saratoga: US wins, France enters the war and sends troop, first major American victory in the war.
-Lexington & Concord: The 1st battle of the American Revolution
Lexington & Concord
"The Shot Heard Round the World"- The first battle of the Revolution in which British general Thomas Gage went after the stockpiled weapons of the colonists in Concord, Massachusetts.
Battle of Cowpens
A major win for the colonists was this battle on January 17th, 1781.The strategies of Daniel Morgan, subordinate of Washington, lead to a decisive defeat of the British at The Battle of (1781) in South Carolina.
Battle of Saratoga
(1777) Turning point of the American Revolution. It was very important because it convinced the French to give the U.S. military support. It lifted American spirits, ended the British threat in New England by taking control of the Hudson River, and, most importantly, showed the French that the Americans had the potential to beat their enemy, Great Britain.
Battle of Yorktown
Last major battle of the Revolutionary War. Cornwallis and his troops were trapped in the Chesapeake Bay by the French fleet. He was sandwiched between the French navy and the American army. He surrendered October 19, 1781.
Declaration of Independence
The Declaration of Independence was approved by Congress on July 4, 1776. drafted by Thomas Jefferson, it formalized the colonies' separation from Britain and laid out the Enlightenment values (best expressed by John Locke) of natural rights to "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness" upon which the American Revolution was based.
1st President of the United States; commander-in-chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolution (1732-1799) no political party. Virginian who began as a commander and chief in the Revolutionary war. Had no desire to become president but the people wanted a strong national leader. Set prescient for many things, including the two terms rule. Warned US against being involved in foreign politics.
Why the change from the articles government to a constitutional government?
There were weaknesses regarding Congress's role in the government, such as they could not tax and enforce its laws, and the lack of an executive branch. This falters nation, and it faces many problems. A new revised constitution states the responsibilities and limits of the government.
A document which spells out the principles by which a government runs and the fundamental laws. Replaced the Articles - had series of compromises (Great, 3/5, Slave Trade); provided limits on federal power (separation of powers); did not address problems of slavery
A term used to describe supporters of the Constitution during ratification debates in state legislatures.
Anti-Federalists rose up as the opponents of the Constitution during the period of ratification. They opposed the Constitution's powerful centralized government, arguing that the Constitution gave too much political, economic, and military control. They instead advocated a decentralized governmental structure that granted most power to the states
the great compromise, the 3/5 compromise, the slave compromise, the commerce compromise
The great compromise
created two houses in Congress; one based on population (Virginia Plan) and the other gave equal representation (new Jersey Plan) to each state.
"black people used for white representation"-counted slaves as 3/5 of a person
congress could tax imports but not exports
Jefferson's goals for country
He wanted to create a new kind of government.
a frugal, limited government. reduced debt. He was curious to explore. he was interested as a scientific venture. Congress was interested in natural resources.
War of 1812
A war (1812-1814) between the U.S. and Great Britain caused by American outrage over the impressment of American sailors by the British, the British seizure of American ships, and British aid to the Indians attacking the Americans on the western frontier. The War Hawks (young westerners led by Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun) argued for war in Congress. U.S. troops led by Andrew Jackson seized Florida and at one point the British managed to invade and burn Washington, D.C. The Treaty of Ghent (December 1814) restored the status quo and required the U.S. to give back Florida. Two weeks later, Andrew Jackson's troops defeated the British at the Battle of New Orleans, not knowing that a peace treaty had already been signed. The war strengthened American nationalism and encouraged the growth of industry.
Industry in the Northeast, why there?
Rivers, access to ocean, Large labor force
Francis Scott Key
wrote the Star Spangled Banner. United States lawyer and poet who wrote a poem after witnessing the British attack on Baltimore during the War of 1812. The poem later became the Star Spangled Banner.
Mid-19th century Immigration
The majority of these newcomers hailed from Northern and Western Europe. Approximately one-third came from Ireland, which experienced a massive famine in the mid-19th century. In the 1840s, almost half of America's immigrants were from Ireland alone. Typically impoverished, these Irish immigrants settled near their point of arrival in cities along the East Coast. Between 1820 and 1930, some 4.5 million Irish migrated to the United States.
Mid-19th century reforms
Economy based on farming and cultivation of the land. Way of life stayed the same for many years. Usually involved two classes, very rich and very poor, no middle class.
Slavery in the South
Eli Whitney's cotton gin revived the South's agricultural economy and caused the expansion of slavery
Huge farms that required a large labor force to grow crops
The seventh President of the United States (1829-1837), who as a general in the War of 1812 defeated the British at New Orleans (1815). As president he opposed the Bank of America, objected to the right of individual states to nullify disagreeable federal laws, and increased the presidential powers.
Passed in 1830, authorized Andrew Jackson to negotiate land-exchange treaties with tribes living east of the Mississippi. The treaties enacted under this act's provisions paved the way for the reluctant—and often forcible—emigration of tens of thousands of American Indians to the West.
A notion held by a nineteenth-century Americans that the United States was destined to rule the continent, from the Atlantic the Pacific.
a period from1848 to 1856 when thousands of people came to California in order to search for gold.
former Confederate state that returned to Union in 1870
Church of Jesus Christ Latter Day Saints; founded by Joseph Smith in 1830; began in upstate NY, "burned-over district"; moved to Salt Lake City, Utah
Causes of Civil War
States rights, economic systems, and sectionalism between North and South.
Battles of the civil war
Fort Sumter, Bull Run, Hampton Roads, Shiloh, Seven Days', Antietam, Fredricksburg, Chancellorsville, Vicksburg, Gettysburg, Sherman's March to the Sea, Wilderness Campaign, Mobile Bay, Appomattox Courthouse
civil war generals
Without the Civil War Generals, the Civil War would have been complete chaos. For example Robert E. Lee and Stonewall Jackson were considered the most accomplished Civil War Generals for their bravery in leading their troops through major, significant battles.
Wedowell, Grant, McClellan, hooter, & Sherman
the period after the Civil War in the United States when the southern states were reorganized and reintegrated into the Union
A wing of Republican Party that opposed slavery before and during the Civil War & vigorously campaigned to secure rights for freed slaves during Reconstruction. Radical Republicans in congress passed the Reconstruction Act of 1867. Guaranteed African males could vote. Prevented former confederate leaders from holding office.
What drove or fostered settlement in the American West after the civil war?
The completion of the railroads to the west opened up vast areas to settle and develop. In mid-1850s California gold rush ended, began prospecting other metals. 1858 Gold was found at Pikes Peak in Colorado.
Reconstruction, What aid was provided to former slaves?
The Freedmen's Bureau provided food, housing and medical aid, established schools and offered medical assistance.
Was the reconstruction beneficial?
Partially, success and failure, helped the south recover and began rebuilding its economy. Economic recovery was far from complete. The south was still a rural economy and poor. African Americans gained greater equality, but the improvement did not last long. It did not make good on the promise of true freedom. They became segregated. They lost many of their newly gained freedoms.
Late 19th century immigration. groups, reasons, expectations, reality.
(pg 746) Came from many different countries. People came for opportunity. Many left homeland because of economic difficulty. They saw it as a plentiful land of jobs, and affordable land. They then faced harsh working conditions in America.
Industrial Laborers. What were the working conditions?
(pg 725) Created many jobs, but hazardous working conditions. 10-12 hours, 6 days per week. Factories were noisy, unhealthy and unsafe.
Why were the unions created?
Workers created labor unions to combat unsafe working conditions in many of the nations industries. Demanded better pay and working conditions. Trade unions had little influence. By the mid-1800s labor leaders looked to expand their unions.
(pg. 727) Economic depression in 1970s and 90s led companies to fire workers and lower wages. Unions responded with large strikes that sometimes sparked violence.
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