the smallest unit that can perform all life processes; cells are covered by a membrane and contain DNA and cytoplasm
deoxyribonucleic acid. Double-stranded nucleic acid twisted into a helical shape; its base sequence encodes the primary hereditary information for all living organisms and many viruses.
plasma (cell) membrane
phospholipid bilayer containing cholesterol and proteins. Contains receptors for communication; forms intercellular connections and boundaries; acts as a physical barrier to enclose cell contents; regulates movement into and out of the cell.
liquid found between the cells of the body that provides much of the liquid environment of the body
a property of cell membranes that allows some substances to pass through, while others cannot
the region of a cell located inside the cell membrane (in prokaryotes) or between the cell membrane and nucleus (in eukaryotes); contains a gel-like material and cell organelles
are structures that work like miniature organs, carrying out specific functions in the cell
a cell organelle constructed in the nucleolus and functioning as the site of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm; Consists of rRNA and protein molecules, which make up two subunits. ribosomes attach to mRNA and move down it one codon at a time and stop until tRNA brings the required amino acid; when a ribosome reaches a stop codon it falls apart and releases the completed protein molecules
ER endoplasmic reticulum
complex network of interconnected membranes that form falttened sacs elongated canals and fluid filled vesicles Connected with the cell membrane nuclear envelope and some organelles Functions a tubular communication system to manufacture and transport substances
membrane-bound sac containing digestive enzymes that can break down proteins, nucleic acids, and polysaccharides
organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that captures the energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy
the readily stainable substance of a cell nucleus, consisting of DNA, RNA, and various proteins, during mitotic (cell) division the chromatin condenses into chromosomes
the stage of the cell cycle during which the cell's nucleus divides into two new nuclei and one copy of the dna is distributed into each daughter cell
the fertilized egg; it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo
a membrane (as a cell membrane) that allows some molecule to pass through but not others
a nucleotide derived from adenosine that occurs in muscle tissue, the major source of energy for cellular reactions
a part of an organism consisting of an aggregate of cells having a similar structure and function
tissue that controls the internal movement of materials in the body, as well as external movement ie; skeletal, cardiac, smooth
membranous tissue covering internal organs and other internal surfaces of the body ie; skin, lining of organs
tissue that receives messages from the body's external and internal environment, analyzes the data, and directs the response ie; neurons
supports organs and fills spaces between them and forms tendons and ligaments, anchors, connects and supports other tissue. ie; bones, fat, blood, cartilage
the process by which the traits that promote or enhance an organisms ability to survive and reproduce are passed on to following generations
inherited characteristic that improves an organism's ability to survive and reproduce in a particular environment, survival of the fittest.
the comparison of body structures in different species that gives signs of similar descent
a process in which something passes by degrees to a different stage (especially a more advanced or mature stage)
the branch of biology that studies the structure and activity of macromolecules essential to life (and especially with their genetic role)
study of scientific classification of organisms into groups based on similarities of structure or origin etc
One of the five kingdoms of life. organisms in this kingdom are all prokaryotic cells called bacteria.
One of the five kingdoms of life. unicellular organisms that contain nuclei which includes protozoans like amoeba and paramecium. Eukaryote.
One of the five kingdoms of life. a kingdom of eukaryotic organisms. They are heterotrophic and digest their food externally, absorbing nutrient molecules into their cells. Yeasts, molds, and mushrooms are examples.
major classification, second to kingdom, of plants and animals; category ranking below a kingdom and above a class; division
a taxonomic classification group that contains similar, closely related organisms, one or more species
transport of a substance (as a protein or drug) across a cell membrane against the concentration gradient using energy.
describes a solution whose solute concentration is higher than the solute concentration inside a cell, if a cell is in a solution that is _______ to the cell, the cell will lose water to its environment, shrivel, and probably die
process by which molecules tend to move from an area where they are more concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated
diffusion of water molecules through a semipermeable membrane from a place of higher concentration to a place of lower concentration until the concentration on both sides is equal
passive process whereby some substances, but not all, pass through a filter or other material
concentration of two solutions having the same or equal osmotic pressure, Referring to a solution that, when surrounding a cell, has no effect on the passage of water into or out of the cell.
when a cell is in a solution that is ______ to the cell, water will enter the cell faster than it leaves, and will cause the cell to swell and burst
organism that can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce its own food from inorganic compounds; also called a producer
organisms that cannot make their own food and must feed on other organisms for energy and nutrients
an animal in the food chain that eats other animals, predators and secondary consumers
top member of the food chain. a member of the trophic level of an ecosystem consisting of carnivores that eat mainly other carnivores.
step in the movement of energy through an ecosystem; an organism's feeding status in an ecosystem
a system formed by the interaction of a community of organisms with their physical environment
a organism the feeds directly on other organisms in order to survive; live-feeders such as herbivores and carnivores
relationship in which a parasitic organism obtains its food at the expense of a host organism
symbiotic relationship in which one member of the association benefits and the other is neither helped nor harmed
the regions of the surface and atmosphere of the Earth (or other planet) where living organisms exist
a major biotic community characterized by the dominant forms of plant life and the prevailing climate
a type of biome characterized by low moisture levels and infrequent and unpredictable precipitation. Daily and seasonal temperatures fluctuate widely.
tropical rain forest
biome near the equator with warm temperatures, wet weather, and lush plant growth
A biome with four seasons, plants shed leaves in the fall and grow new ones in the spring.
the environment has cold, snowy winters and mild summers and is dominated by tall everygreen trees
Treeless arctic or alpine biome characterized by cold, harsh winters, a short growing season, and potential for frost any month of the year; vegetation includes low-growing perennial plants, mosses and lichens
process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates such as sugars and starches
Waxy, protective layer that covers the stems, leaves, and flowers of many plants. Helps prevent water loss.
An opening on the surface of a leaf. Carbon dioxide, oxygen, and water vapor pass in and out of the stomates. Guard cells control the opening and closing of the stomates.
outermost circle of flower parts that encloses a bud before it opens and protects the flower while it is developing
pollen-bearing structure in the stamen (male organ) of the flower usually located on top of the filament of the stamen.
the female reproductive structure in a flower that consists of a stigma, a style, and an ovary, part of a flower that makes the eggs that grow into seeds
a mature fertilized plant ovule consisting of an embryo and its food source and having a protective coat or testa
a segment of DNA on a chromosome that codes for a specific trait, A discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA (or RNA, in some viruses).
an organism with a dominant allele for a particular form of a trait will always exhibit that form of the trait. (ex. Bb ---The big B would be dominant
the entire genetic makeup of an organism; also the combination of genes for one or more specific traits
the separation of paired alleles during meiosis so that members of each pair of alleles appear in different gametes
a process during cell division in which pairs of genes on different chromosomes are randomly distributed to the gametes
traits that tend to be inherited together as a consequence of an association between their genes
when an organism's genotype has either both dominant genes for a trait or both recessive genes (ex. BB or bb)
sex linked traits
traits that are dominant or recessive depending on gender, disorder pertinent to gender, ie females cant be colorblind..traits can only be carried or present on X or female gene
the building block of a nucleic acid, consisting of a five-carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous bas and a phosphate group.
the form of native DNA, referring to its two adjacent polynucleotide strands wound into a spiral shape
a nitrogen-containing base found in RNA (but not in DNA) and derived from pyrimidine, The RNA version of thymine. Like thymine, this base also pairs with adenine.
Part of the sugar phosphate backbone in the double helix, A functional group important in energy transfer (ATP and ADP), found in DNA, RNA, and ATP?
the organic process whereby the DNA sequence in a gene is copied into mRNA, in the nucleus
messenger RNA (m-RNA)
RNA molecule that carries copies of instructions for the assembly of amino acids into proteins from DNA to the rest of the cell, the form of RNA that carries information from DNA in the nucleus to the ribosome sites of protein synthesis in the cell
transfer RNA (t-RNA)
RNA in the cytoplasm that carries an amino acid to the ribosome and adds it to the growing protein chain,
an organic base that contains nitrogen, such as a purine or pyrimidine; a subunit of a nucleotide in DNA and RNA
organic compounds containing an amino group and a carboxylic acid group, a small molecule that is linked chemically to other amino acids to form proteins
the process whereby genetic information coded in messenger RNA directs the formation of a specific protein at a ribosome in the cytoplasm
a nitrogenous base that has a single-ring structure; one of the two general categories of nitrogenous bases found in DNA and RNA; thymine, cytosine, or uracil