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NLN PAX RN Study Guide I

PAX RN STUDY definitions
STUDY
PLAY
cell
the smallest unit that can perform all life processes; cells are covered by a membrane and contain DNA and cytoplasm
nucleus
a part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction
DNA
deoxyribonucleic acid. Double-stranded nucleic acid twisted into a helical shape; its base sequence encodes the primary hereditary information for all living organisms and many viruses.
plasma (cell) membrane
phospholipid bilayer containing cholesterol and proteins. Contains receptors for communication; forms intercellular connections and boundaries; acts as a physical barrier to enclose cell contents; regulates movement into and out of the cell.
interstitial fluid
liquid found between the cells of the body that provides much of the liquid environment of the body
selectively permeable
a property of cell membranes that allows some substances to pass through, while others cannot
cytoplasm
the region of a cell located inside the cell membrane (in prokaryotes) or between the cell membrane and nucleus (in eukaryotes); contains a gel-like material and cell organelles
organelles
are structures that work like miniature organs, carrying out specific functions in the cell
mitochondria
powerhouse of the cell, organelle that is the site of ATP (energy) production
ribosome
a cell organelle constructed in the nucleolus and functioning as the site of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm; Consists of rRNA and protein molecules, which make up two subunits. ribosomes attach to mRNA and move down it one codon at a time and stop until tRNA brings the required amino acid; when a ribosome reaches a stop codon it falls apart and releases the completed protein molecules
ER endoplasmic reticulum
complex network of interconnected membranes that form falttened sacs elongated canals and fluid filled vesicles Connected with the cell membrane nuclear envelope and some organelles Functions a tubular communication system to manufacture and transport substances
golgi complex
the cell organelle that modifies, packages, and transports materials out of the cell
lysosome
membrane-bound sac containing digestive enzymes that can break down proteins, nucleic acids, and polysaccharides
cell wall
strong supporting layer around the cell membrane in plants, algae, and some bacteria
chloroplast
organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that captures the energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy
vacuole
cell organelle that stores materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates
chromatin
the readily stainable substance of a cell nucleus, consisting of DNA, RNA, and various proteins, during mitotic (cell) division the chromatin condenses into chromosomes
chromosomes
threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes
mitosis
the stage of the cell cycle during which the cell's nucleus divides into two new nuclei and one copy of the dna is distributed into each daughter cell
zygote
the fertilized egg; it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo
meiosis
cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms
semipermeable membrane
a membrane (as a cell membrane) that allows some molecule to pass through but not others
ATP
a nucleotide derived from adenosine that occurs in muscle tissue, the major source of energy for cellular reactions
tissue
a part of an organism consisting of an aggregate of cells having a similar structure and function
muscle tissue
tissue that controls the internal movement of materials in the body, as well as external movement ie; skeletal, cardiac, smooth
epithelial tissue
membranous tissue covering internal organs and other internal surfaces of the body ie; skin, lining of organs
nervous tissue
tissue that receives messages from the body's external and internal environment, analyzes the data, and directs the response ie; neurons
connective tissue
supports organs and fills spaces between them and forms tendons and ligaments, anchors, connects and supports other tissue. ie; bones, fat, blood, cartilage
organ
a collection of tissues that carry out a specialized function of the body
organ system
group of organs that work together to perform a specific function
organism
a living thing that has (or can develop) the ability to act or function independently
4 Main Tissue Categories
muscle, epithelial, nervous, connective
natural selection
the process by which the traits that promote or enhance an organisms ability to survive and reproduce are passed on to following generations
adaptation
inherited characteristic that improves an organism's ability to survive and reproduce in a particular environment, survival of the fittest.
fossil record
chronological collection of life's remains in sedimentary rock layers
vertebrates
animals with backbones
biogeography
dealing with the geographical distribution of animals and plants
comparative anatomy
the comparison of body structures in different species that gives signs of similar descent
comparative embryology
comparison of the early stages of development (embryo)
evolution
a process in which something passes by degrees to a different stage (especially a more advanced or mature stage)
molecular biology
the branch of biology that studies the structure and activity of macromolecules essential to life (and especially with their genetic role)
taxonomy
study of scientific classification of organisms into groups based on similarities of structure or origin etc
kingdom
the largest group into which an organism can be classified.
animal
One of the five kingdoms of life. a living organism characterized by voluntary movement
plant
One of the five kingdoms of life, a living organism lacking the power of locomotion
monera
One of the five kingdoms of life. organisms in this kingdom are all prokaryotic cells called bacteria.
protist
One of the five kingdoms of life. unicellular organisms that contain nuclei which includes protozoans like amoeba and paramecium. Eukaryote.
fungi
One of the five kingdoms of life. a kingdom of eukaryotic organisms. They are heterotrophic and digest their food externally, absorbing nutrient molecules into their cells. Yeasts, molds, and mushrooms are examples.
phylum
major classification, second to kingdom, of plants and animals; category ranking below a kingdom and above a class; division
class
the taxonomic gruop above order. a taxonomic group containing one or more orders
order
the taxonomic group above family, containing one or more families
family
a taxonomic group containing one or more genera
genus
a taxonomic classification group that contains similar, closely related organisms, one or more species
species
group of similar organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring
active transport
transport of a substance (as a protein or drug) across a cell membrane against the concentration gradient using energy.
passive transport
the movement of materials through a cell membrane without using energy
hypertonic
describes a solution whose solute concentration is higher than the solute concentration inside a cell, if a cell is in a solution that is _______ to the cell, the cell will lose water to its environment, shrivel, and probably die
diffusion
process by which molecules tend to move from an area where they are more concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated
osmosis
diffusion of water molecules through a semipermeable membrane from a place of higher concentration to a place of lower concentration until the concentration on both sides is equal
filtration
passive process whereby some substances, but not all, pass through a filter or other material
isotonic
concentration of two solutions having the same or equal osmotic pressure, Referring to a solution that, when surrounding a cell, has no effect on the passage of water into or out of the cell.
hypotonic
when a cell is in a solution that is ______ to the cell, water will enter the cell faster than it leaves, and will cause the cell to swell and burst
autotroph
organism that can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce its own food from inorganic compounds; also called a producer
heterotroph
organisms that cannot make their own food and must feed on other organisms for energy and nutrients
primary consumer
organism (consumer) that feeds directly on producers (plants) herbivore
herbivore
organism (producer) that obtains energy by eating only (producers) plants
omnivore
a consumer that eats both plants and animals
secondary consumer
an animal in the food chain that eats other animals, predators and secondary consumers
carnivore
organism that obtains energy by eating animals, a flesh eating animal
tertiary consumer
top member of the food chain. a member of the trophic level of an ecosystem consisting of carnivores that eat mainly other carnivores.
trophic level
step in the movement of energy through an ecosystem; an organism's feeding status in an ecosystem
ecosystem
a system formed by the interaction of a community of organisms with their physical environment
food chain
a community of organisms where each member is eaten in turn by another member
food web
a community of organisms where there are several interrelated food chains
decomposer
organism that breaks down and absorbs nutrients from dead organisms
biotic
any living or previously living component of an environment
predator
a organism the feeds directly on other organisms in order to survive; live-feeders such as herbivores and carnivores
prey
animal hunted or caught for food
symbiosis
the relation between two different species of organisms that are interdependent
parasitism
relationship in which a parasitic organism obtains its food at the expense of a host organism
commensalism
symbiotic relationship in which one member of the association benefits and the other is neither helped nor harmed
mutualism
the relation between two different species of organisms that are interdependent
biosphere
the regions of the surface and atmosphere of the Earth (or other planet) where living organisms exist
biome
a major biotic community characterized by the dominant forms of plant life and the prevailing climate
deserts
a type of biome characterized by low moisture levels and infrequent and unpredictable precipitation. Daily and seasonal temperatures fluctuate widely.
tropical rain forest
biome near the equator with warm temperatures, wet weather, and lush plant growth
deciduous forest
A biome with four seasons, plants shed leaves in the fall and grow new ones in the spring.
coniferous forest
the environment has cold, snowy winters and mild summers and is dominated by tall everygreen trees
tundra
Treeless arctic or alpine biome characterized by cold, harsh winters, a short growing season, and potential for frost any month of the year; vegetation includes low-growing perennial plants, mosses and lichens
photosynthesis
process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates such as sugars and starches
chlorophyll
green pigment in plants that absorbs light energy used to carry out photosynthesis
cuticle
Waxy, protective layer that covers the stems, leaves, and flowers of many plants. Helps prevent water loss.
stomate
An opening on the surface of a leaf. Carbon dioxide, oxygen, and water vapor pass in and out of the stomates. Guard cells control the opening and closing of the stomates.
sepal
outermost circle of flower parts that encloses a bud before it opens and protects the flower while it is developing
angiosperms
a flowering plant which forms seeds inside a protective chamber called an ovary.
petal
part of the flower that produces sweet smelling nectar and attracts pollinators
stamen
the pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower, consisting of an anther and a filament.
filament
stalk that supports the anther
anther
pollen-bearing structure in the stamen (male organ) of the flower usually located on top of the filament of the stamen.
pistil
the female reproductive structure in a flower that consists of a stigma, a style, and an ovary, part of a flower that makes the eggs that grow into seeds
stigma
the apical end of the style where deposited pollen enters the pistil
style
the narrow elongated part of the pistil between the ovary and the stigma
ovary
a structure containing egg cells; the base of a pistil in a flower
ovule
a structure that develops in the plant ovary and contains the female gametophyte.
seed
a mature fertilized plant ovule consisting of an embryo and its food source and having a protective coat or testa
fruit
the ripened ovary of a flowering seed plant
gene
a segment of DNA on a chromosome that codes for a specific trait, A discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA (or RNA, in some viruses).
allele
one of the alternative forms of a gene that governs a characteristic, such as hair color
dominance
an organism with a dominant allele for a particular form of a trait will always exhibit that form of the trait. (ex. Bb ---The big B would be dominant
phenotype
the physical traits that appear in an individual as a result of its gentic make up.
genotype
the entire genetic makeup of an organism; also the combination of genes for one or more specific traits
segregation
the separation of paired alleles during meiosis so that members of each pair of alleles appear in different gametes
independent assortment
a process during cell division in which pairs of genes on different chromosomes are randomly distributed to the gametes
linkage
traits that tend to be inherited together as a consequence of an association between their genes
heterozygote
organism that was two different alleles for the same trait
homozygote
when an organism's genotype has either both dominant genes for a trait or both recessive genes (ex. BB or bb)
sex linked traits
traits that are dominant or recessive depending on gender, disorder pertinent to gender, ie females cant be colorblind..traits can only be carried or present on X or female gene
autosome
any chromosome that is not directly involved in determining sex
replication
the process whereby DNA makes a copy of itself before cell division
nucleotide
the building block of a nucleic acid, consisting of a five-carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous bas and a phosphate group.
deoxyribose
a five-carbon sugar found in DNA.
double helix
the form of native DNA, referring to its two adjacent polynucleotide strands wound into a spiral shape
uracil
a nitrogen-containing base found in RNA (but not in DNA) and derived from pyrimidine, The RNA version of thymine. Like thymine, this base also pairs with adenine.
phosphate group
Part of the sugar phosphate backbone in the double helix, A functional group important in energy transfer (ATP and ADP), found in DNA, RNA, and ATP?
transcription
the organic process whereby the DNA sequence in a gene is copied into mRNA, in the nucleus
messenger RNA (m-RNA)
RNA molecule that carries copies of instructions for the assembly of amino acids into proteins from DNA to the rest of the cell, the form of RNA that carries information from DNA in the nucleus to the ribosome sites of protein synthesis in the cell
transfer RNA (t-RNA)
RNA in the cytoplasm that carries an amino acid to the ribosome and adds it to the growing protein chain,
nitrogenous base
an organic base that contains nitrogen, such as a purine or pyrimidine; a subunit of a nucleotide in DNA and RNA
amino acid
organic compounds containing an amino group and a carboxylic acid group, a small molecule that is linked chemically to other amino acids to form proteins
translation
the process whereby genetic information coded in messenger RNA directs the formation of a specific protein at a ribosome in the cytoplasm
purine
double-ring nitrogenous base, found in DNA and RNA; either adenine or guanine
pyrimidine
a nitrogenous base that has a single-ring structure; one of the two general categories of nitrogenous bases found in DNA and RNA; thymine, cytosine, or uracil
ribose
a five-carbon sugar present in RNA and ATP