Chapter 14 and 15 The heart/Circulation of the blood

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Terms in this set (...)

The heart has its own special covering, a loose fitting in extensible sac called
pericardium
The bulk of the heart wall is thick, contractile middle layer called
mycardium
The type of tissue that lines the heart and blood vessels is the
endothelium
Blood leaving the left atrium passes next through the
mitral valve
Blood leaving the right atrium passes next through the
tricuspid vavle
The order which an impulse passes through the conduction system of the heart is
SA node, AV node, AV bundle, and Purkinje fibers
Atria
receiving chambers
Ventricles
discharging chambers, they have thicker walls than the atria
Heart begins with
atrial systole
The chordate tendineae are attached to the
bicuspid valve
What structure contains oxygen rich blood
pulmonary vein
Coronary Circulation
blood flows to the heart muscle by way of the right and left coronary arteries, the coronary arteries are the first branch of the aorta
Another term for "hardening of the arteries" is
atherosclerosis
The pacemaker for the conduction system of the heart is the
sinoatrial node
the ECG deflection that represents the depolarization of the ventricles is the
QRS complex
The ECG defection that represents the depolarization of the atria is the
P wave
The ECG deflection that represents the repolarization of the ventricles is the
T wave
Repolarization of the atria
is very small is hidden by the large QRS complex that occurs at the same time
Cardiac output is determined by the
heart rate and stroke volume
What tends to decrease heart rate
the neurotransmitter acetyleholine
What are the upper two chambers of the heart?
atrium or atria
What are the lower two chambers?
ventricles
The system that supplies our cells' transportation needs is the
circulatory system
The ? or blunt point at the lower edge of the heart lies on the diaphragm, pointing to the left
apex
what divides the heart into right and left sides between the atria
interatrial spectum
Inflammation of the heart lining is
endocarditis
What are the two AV valves?
bicuspid or mitral valve and tricuspid valve
What is the inner layer of the pericardium?
visceral pericardium or epicardium
What is the outer layer of the pericardium?
parietal pericardium
If the pericardium becomes inflamed, a condition called
pericarditis
What is located between the two ventricular chambers and the large arteries that carry blood away from the heart when contraction occurs?
SL valves or semilunar valves
What is the condition caused when the flaps of this valve extend back into the left atrium, causing the valve to leak
mitral valve prolapse
Cardiac damage resulting from a delayed inflammatory response to a streptococcal infection that occurs most often in children?
Rheumatic heart disease
movement of blood from the left ventricle through the body
systemic circulation
blood clot
embolism
myocardial infarction
heart attack
abnormal heart sound often caused by disorders of the valves
heart murmur
movement of blood from the right ventricle to the lungs
pulmonary circulation
severe chest pain
angina pectoris
high blood pressure
hypertension
structures through which blood returns to the left atrium
pulmonary veins
treatment for certain coronary disorders
coronary bypass
The heart beats at an average rate of ? bmp
72
each complete beat of the heart is called
a cardiac cycle
the pace maker of the heart is also known as the
SA node
a rapid heart rhythm, over 100 beats per minutes, is referred to as
tachycardia
describes the electrical activity that triggers contraction of the heart muscle
depolarization
a diagnostic tool that uses ultrasound to detect valve and heart disorders is known as an
echocardiogram
frequent premature contractions can lead to
fibrillation
a drug that slows and increases the strength of cardiac contractions is
digitalis
congestive heart failure inevitably causes
pulmonary edema
failure of the right side of the heart due to blockage of pulmonary blood flow is called
cor pulmonale
a non medical rescuer can defilbrillate a victim in ventricular fibrillation with the use of an
AED
coumadin and dicumarol are examples of commonly used oral
anticoagulants
the superior vena cava carriers blood to the
right atrium
what precedes ventricular contraction
P wave, atrial depolarization, and ventricular depolarization
pericarditis
may be caused by infection or trauma, often causes severe chest pain, and may result in impairment of the pumping action of the heart
outside covering that surrounds and protects the heart
pericardium
thin-walled upper heart cavities that receive blood from veins are called
atria
a valve that permits blood to flow from the right ventricle into the pulmonary artery is called
pulmonary semilunar
ventricle contraction of the heart occurs immediately after depolarization of the
purkinje fibers
a variation in heart rate during breathing cycle is called
sinus dysrhythmia
heart implants
allow patients to move around freely without external pumps, are artificial hearts that are made up of biologically inert synthetic materials, still have limited use
arteries
carry blood away from the heart
veins
carry blood to the heart, have one way valves that prevent back flow of blood
capillaries
function as exchange vessels
tunica externa
outermost layer of arteries and veins
precapillary sphincters
smooth muscle cells that guard the entrance to capillaries
superior vena cava
largest vein
aorta
carries blood out of the left ventricle
decreased blood supply to a tissue
ischemia
tissue death
necrosis
necrosis that has progressed to decay
gangrene
a type of arteriosclerosis caused by lipids
atherosclerosis
a section of an artery that has become abnormally widened
aneurysm
varicose veins in the rectum
hemorrhoids
vein inflammation
phlebitis
clot formation
thrombus
cerebral vascular accident
stroke
Each chamber of the heart is lined by a thin layer of smooth tissue known as the
endocardium
Which of the following is the atrioventricular valve that is located on the left side of the heart?
mitral
what is on the left side of the heart?
systemic circulation
what wave occurs with depolarization of the atria
P
An immediate life-threatening arrhythmia, in which a lack of ventricular pumping stops the flow of blood to vital organs, is:
ventricular fibrillation
a general term for a disease of the myocardium is
cardiomyopathy
a calcium channel-blocker?
heart medication
the ductus venosus is part of?
fetal circulation
what influences blood pressure
blood volume, strength of heart contractions, and heart rate
what happens when blood volume is loss?
hypovolemic shock
device used to measure blood pressure?
sphygmomanometer