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split H2O, release O2, reduce NADP to NADPH, generate ATP from ADP by photophosphorylation
What is the first step in Light Reactions?
Electron transfer from Chlorophyll A to primary electron acceptor
Linear Electron Flow
Primary Pathway: involves both photosystems and produces ATP and NADPH using light energy
What are the three phases in the Calvin Cycle?
1. Carbon Fixation 2. Reduction 3. Regeneration of the CO2 acceptor
In the electromagnetic spectrum, the type of radiation that we call visible light occurs between _____.
ultraviolet radiation and infrared radiation
What is the product of light reactions during photosynthesis?
NADPH, high energy electrons, oxygen, ATP
When light strikes chlorophyll molecules, they lose electrons, which are ultimately replaced by _____.
Photosynthesis is a redox reaction. This means that H2O is _____ during the light reactions and CO2 is_ _____ during the Calvin Cycle.
C4 plants occur more commonly in desert conditions because _____
they can fix carbon at the lower CO2 concentrations that develop when the stomata are closed
In the Calvin cycle, how many ATP molecules are required to regenerate RuBP from five G3P molecules?
C4 plants differ from C3 and CAM plants in that C4 plants _____.
transfer fixed carbon dioxide to cells in which the Calvin cycle occurs
Accessory pigments within chloroplasts are responsible for
absoring photons of different wavelengths of light and passing that energy to P680 or P700
Linear Electron flow along with chemiosmosis in the chloroplast results in the production of
ATP, NADPH, and O2
CAM plants avod photorespiration by
fixing CO2 into organic acids during the night; these acids then release CO2 during the day
What are the final electron acceptors for the ETC in the light reactions of photosynthesis and in cellular respiration?
NADP+ in light reactions, O2 in respiration
In photosynthesis, plants use carbon from _____ to make sugar and other organic molecules.
In a rosebush, chlorophyll is located in _____.
thylakoids, which are in chloroplasts in the mesophyll cells of a leaf
The source of the oxygen produced by photosynthesis has been identified through experiments using radioactive tracers. The oxygen comes from _____.
In photosynthesis, what is the fate of the oxygen atoms present in CO2? They end up ______.
in sugar molecules and in water
The reactions of the Calvin cycle are not directly dependent on light, but they usually do not occur at night. Why?
The Calvin cycle depends on products of the light reactions.
the wavelengths of light most effective in driving photosynthesis are referred to as _____.
The action Spectrum
During photosynthesis in chloroplasts, O2 is produced from ______ via a series of reactions associated with ______.
H2O; photosystem II
During photosynthesis in a eukaryotic cell, a high proton concentration accumulates or is formed in the ______.
(inner) thylakoid space
The light reactions of photosynthesis generate high-energy electrons, which end up in ____. The light reactions also produce ____ and ____.
NADPH ... ATP ... oxygen
The energy used to produce ATP in the light reactions of photosynthesis comes from _____.
movement of H+ through a membrane
What is the role of NADP+ in photosynthesis?
It is reduced and then carries electrons to the Calvin cycle.
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