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150 terms

General Psychology 2301

Ch. 1,2,3,5
Any overt (observable) response or activity by an organism.
applied psychology
The branch of psychology concerned with everyday, practical problems.
A theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behavior.
clinical psychology
The branch of psychology concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems and disorders.
The mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge.
Critical thinking
Purposeful, reasoned, goal-directed thinking that involves solving problems, formulating inferences, working with probabilities, and making carefully thought-out decisions.
As a young psychologist, your major goal is to help people reach their potential. Most likely you follow the principles of:
Is an area of research in psychology that is concerned with assessing individual differences, developing tests, and developing new statistical techniques.
Charles Darwin
William James, who was a pioneer in the development of functionalism, was most heavily influenced by
analyze conscious experience into its basics elements
Wundt and Titchener believed that psychology should
help if key ideas are marked and reviewed later
Text marking or highlighting is likely to
Wilhelm Wundt
The notion that the subject matter of psychology should be the scientific study of conscious experience is most closely linked with
social psychology
Which field of psychology studies attitude change and group behavior?
a humanistic
Oliver is studying motivation in chimpanzees. His roommate dosen't think that Oliver's research will produce much useful information about human motivation because he believes that information from animal studies will not provide meaningful information about human experiences. Oliver's roommate apparently has _____ perspective.
The school of psychology associated with understanding the purpose of consciousness is
The fact that behaviors can be observed and thoughts and feelings cannot is the basis of
flexible, willing to plan, persistent
These are all examples of a critical thinker
their self-concept
Humanists believe that people's behavior is governed by
B.F. Skinner
Which psychologist believed that organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to positive outcomes?
direct observations
The text's unifying theme that "psychology is empirical" implies that psychologists base their conclusions on
Critical thinking refers to
analysis of problems in terms of scientific principles, making decisions based on formal and informal logic, and thinking that includes consideration of conflicting interpretations.
the role of cultural factors in psychological processes
Dr. Vasquez has found that many Asians feel uncomfortable with the expression of emotions and disclosure of personal information. As a consequence, Dr. Vasquez has made several suggestions for ways in which psychological counseling might be modified to benefit people from Asian backgrounds. Based on this information, you could infer that Dr. Vasquez investigates
Watson defined psychology as the scientific study of
Currently a large proportion of the American population is overweight. Dr. Laker thinks that, in part, this may be due to an innate preference for foods that are rich in fats and sugars. Dr. Laker has suggested that in times when foods were not so readily available, this innate preference would ensure enough calories for energy and survival. Dr. Laker views are most consistentwith those of the ____ perspective in psychology.
Sigmund Freud developed an innovative procedure for treating people with psychological problems, which he called
The term that refers to the mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge is
a theory
A scientist uses ___ to explain a set of observations.
psychology of personality
William James' development of the concept of the self was influential to what field?
educational psychology
Elizabeth is interested in the best way to study achievement among middle school children and she is also interested in the factors that underlie student motivation. Elizabeth would most likely describe her research interests as
educaitonal psychology
Which of the following areas of specializations in psychology is involved with the development of curricula and the training of teachers?
our experience of the world is highly subjective
In criticizing the structuralists' reliance on the method of introspection, William James argued that two people could view the same stimulus quite differently. James's argument illustrates which of the textbook's unifying themes?
research methods
The different general strategies for conducting scientific investigation are referred to as
A periodical that published technical and scholarly material in a specific field is referred to as a
Anecdotal evidence is similar to ___ data.
dependent variable
In experimental research, the variable that the researcher measures because it is thought to be affected by the manipulation of another variable is the
Most likely, the amount of time students spend studying would show a ___ correlation with the students' grades.
correlation coefficient
a value near zero indicates no relationship between the two variables, the type of relationship between the two varibles is described by whether the value is positive or negative, the strength of the relationship between the two variables is described by the mathematical value.
understanding and prediciton
Scientific theories are most directly associated with which goal of science?
reduce the impact of experimenter bias
Dr. Webb designs a research in which neither the subjects nor the individual who interact directly with the subjects know which is the control group and which is the wxperimental group in the study. Dr. Webb probably chose this type of research design in order to
they do not manipulate the variables under study.
Naturalistic observation, case studies, and surveys all have in common that
The repetition of a study to see whether the earlier duplicate is referred to as
the artificial, contrived situations in which experiments are often conduted.
One of the disadvantages of the experimental method is
day of the week
An experimenter tests the hypothesis that physical exercise helps people's mood (makes them happier). Subjects in the experimental group participate on Monday and Tuesday and those in the control group on Wednesday and Thursday. What is the extraneous variable?
analyze data and draw conclusions
After designing a study to investigate the role of gender on learned helplessness a clinical psychologist collects data from 100 participants. What is the clinical psychologist's next step in the investigation?
descriptive/correlational method
When studying a research question where if would be impractical to manipulate the variables of interest, a researcher would use a
very similar to; independent variable
Subjects in the control group should be ____ subjects in the experimenta groups in all respects except for the treatment they receive in regards to the ____.
survey, case study, naturalistic observation
These are descriptive/correlational research methods
overweight individuals tend to snore more than underweight individuals
Dr. Redding has found a correlation of +0.65 between snoring and weight. This indicates that
dependent variable
In experimental research, the data collected by the researcher are the
precise formulation, clearly defined variables, testable predictions
These are requirements in the formulation of and hypothesis
control group.
In experimental research, subjects that do not receive some special treatment in regard to the independent variable are the
a naturalistic observation
You are interested in parenting differences between men and women. In your study you sit in a public park documenting the types of play behaviors between mothers and children and fathers and children. Which design of study does this describe?
application and control.
The use of behavioral principles to modify a child's unruly behavior reflects the goal fo science that deals with
Which section of a journal article describing psychological research contains the author's interpretation and evaluation of the data?
use of the double-blind procedure
What procedure helps correct for experimenter bias?
a concise summary of the entire article.
The abstract of a journal article provides
she would most likely score at the low end of the extroversion scale.
Imagine that the personality traits of openness and extroversion are positively correlated. If Andrea's score in openness is extremely low,
application, control, measurement and description
The 3 goals of science are?
data is collected over the internet.
Internet-mediated research refers to studies where
What is the most common type of study conducted over the internet?
Suppose that researchers find an inverse relationship between alcohol consumption and the number of correct responses on a skills test. The more alcohol consumed, the lower the score. Which of the following fictitious statistics could possibly represent that correlation?
it cannot be used to study some research questions for practical or ethical reasons.
A disadvantage or limitation of the experimental research method is
replicate their results.
A psychologist conducts a memory study. To ensure the validity of the results the researcher should
don't mind being misled and generally enjoyed taking part in research.
Research has revealed that subjects who participated in research involving deception
control group
In experimental research, which group of subjects could best be renamed the comparison group?
A tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables is a
Hypotheses are typically expressed as
the lack of a relationship between two variables.
A correlation coefficient of zero descibes
amount of exposure to caffine
This is an example of an independent variable that can be manipulated?
more than one pair of genes where one gene of each pair comes from each parent.
Polygenic traits involve characteristics that are influenced by
experimental and descriptive/correlational research methods.
The two main types of research methods used in psychology are the
frontal lobe
The primary motor cortex is located in the
The medulla is involved in
controlling essential functions such as breathing, regulating circulation, and maintaining muscle tone.
genetics and experience jointly influence human behavior.
Results from family, twin, and adoption studies strongly suggest that
The chemicals released into the bloodstream by the endocrine glands are
multiple causes that involve both genetic and environmental factors.
Current evidence indicates that schizophrenia results from
a polygenic trait.
Skin color is determined by three to five gene pairs. This makes skin color
prefrontal cortex
Some theorists believe that a sort of "executive control system," which is responsible for monitoring, directing, and organizing thought processes, is housed in the
The neurotransmitter released by motor neurons that results in movement of the voluntary muscles is
Testosterone has been associated with
When this lobe of the brain is electrically stimulated people report physical sensations, as if they had been touched, for example, on the arm.
heredity and environment jointly influence behavior
Darwin's theory of natural selection is most directly related to which of the text's unifying themes in psychology?
adoption studies
Which research method allow researchers to most easily isolate the effect of both genetics and experience on specific traits?
becomes less negative.
As a neuron is stimulated and starts to receive information the neuron's electrical charge
neuron axons end in clusters of terminal buttons that allow them to connect to mutiple cells
Most neuron have only one axon, yet it is said that a single neuron can connect to many other neurons. How does this occur?
parietal lobe
The lobe of the brain with primary responsibility for processing bodily sensations is the
left cerebral hemisphere.
Persons having difficulty with language and speech following an accident that resulted in injury to brain are most likely to have sustained damage in the
planning, paying attention, and getting organized.
If a patient has severe damage to the prefrontal cortex, you would predict that he might also have difficulty
the brain and spinal cord.
The central nervous system consists of
sympathetic nervous system.
On the way home from the library last night you heard the footsteps of someone following you. You turned and saw the shadow of a large man heading towards you. You ran to your car faster than you had ever run. By the time you got to your car your heart rate was rapid and you were sweating. This fight or flight response was most likely the result of activity in your
If electrical stimulation of a brain structure results in an animal's eating constantly and gaining weight rapidly, the structure stimulated most likely is the
The chemicals that are secreted from the terminal buttons into the synapse are
a restin potential.
The tiny electrical charge that exists when a neuron is not receiving and/or sending information is called
dendrites to soma to axon
Which is the correct sequence of structures through which information flows in a neuron?
genetic factors have more influence than environmental factors in this disorder.
Donald and Ronald are identical twins who have been raised apart, in separate adoptive homes. However, both brothers have developed the same psychological disorder. This information could be used as evidence to suggest that
These have demonstrated through scientific research
rats raised in enriched environments have heavier brains that rats raised in impoverished environments, kittens deprived of visual stimulation in one eye early in life become permanently blind in that eye, after listening to classical music, college student show increased performance on some tasks.
Recent evidence suggests that ____ cells play a key role in the experience of pain
The main function of dendrites is to
receive information.
A family of chemicals produced in the body that resemble opiates are the
pituitary gland.
The "master gland" of the endocrine system is the
Since the long necks of giraffes and sharp beaks of woodpeckers allow individuals access to food, these physical characteristics are considered to be examples of
synaptic vesciles secrete neurotranmitters which diffuse over to the receptor sites on the dendrites of another neuron
Which statement most accurately describes the process of synaptic transmission?
a disruption of her sleep and wake cycles.
Erin suffered a brain injury and her neurologist has told her that there is damage to her reticular formation. In this instance, Erin is most likely to experience
The neurotransmitter believed to be associated with schizophrenia is
the input of new neurons to a damaged region of the brain
Which describes brain plasticity?
Which brain structure appears to play an active role in intergrating sensory information?
is impractical since it is impossible to teach just one hemisphere at a time.
Thext concludes that the suggestion that school systems should be reformed so that more emphasis is placed on teaching the right side of the brain
The thalamus, hypothalamus, and limbic system are all located in the
an area known as Broca's area.
Zeke has no problem understanding what other people say to him, but he has difficulty producing spoken language. If Zeke's problem stems from damage to the cerebral cortex, the damage would most likely be in
The generation of new neurons is called ____?
autonomic nervous system.
The heart, glands, and smooth muscles are controlled by the
borderline personality disorder.
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has not been investigated for its potential therapeutic use in the treatment of
visual recognition, musical tasks, spatial tasks.
For the majority of people the right hemisphere is superior on all the following types of tasks
Which of the following is processed by the amygdala?
The _____ nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord.
mescaline, psilocybin, LSD.
All of the following drugs are from the same category of recreational drugs
hynosis, meditation, psychoactive drugs
Can all produce highly subjective events
as our body temperature begins to drop.
According to recent research, we are most likely to fall asleep
Christine has just taken a drug. She experiences a short-lived high that lasted a few hours and reports that she feels warm, friendly, sensual, and insightful. Additionally her blood pressure has increased and shows sweating, insomnia and transient anxiety. It is most likely that christine has taken
increase releases of dopamine and norepinephrine.
Dr. Dow has developed a new drug that works as a stimulant. It is likely that this drug will
role-playing theory of hypnosis.
The idea that hypnotized persons are acting in the manner they believe a hypnotized person would is the basic tenet behind the
our behavior is shaped by our cultural heritage
The fact that the importance people place on dreams varies across societies best illustrates which of the textbook's unifying themes?
sleep apnea.
Martin wakes up hundreds of times each night gasping for air. He suffers from
developed a drug tolerance for Seconal.
Hannah used to experience insomnia once or twice a week. A month ago she starting taking Seconal to help her sleep, but now she finds she cannot get to sleep unless she takes a Seconal tablet. This would suggest that Hannah has
during REM sleep.
The most vivid dreams generally occur
The brain wave pattern of a person in ____ sleep resembles the brain wave pattern observed when the individual is awake and alert.
more apt; less
Research has shown that people who work on a rotating shift schedule are ____ to have accidents and be _____ productive than people who do not work on a rotating shift schedule.
falling from the top of a tall building on campus, being chased by his or her most feared instructor, missing an important exam.
According to research evidence on dream content, a student would most likely dream about
developed a physical dependence for amphetamines.
Aaron has been taking a mild amphetamine for the past four months to help him cope with being a full-time student while holding down a full-time job. Now that his classes have ended he wants to stop taking the amphetamine, but each time he tries to skip the medication he starts sweatin and he develops tremors. It appears that Aaron has
The content of most dreams is usually
external events, internal sensations, and self.
Consciousness includes awareness of
motor coordination, endocrine system, immune system.
All of the following affected by sleep deprivation
an increase in relaxation and a decrease in autonomic arousal.
Hailey recently began meditating on a regular basis. Over the short-term Hailey should expect to experience
a somnambulist
Matthew often wakes up nad wanders around the house in his sleep, usually during the first three hours of the night or so. He is most likely
EEG summarizes what aspect of brain activity?
external events, internal sensations, self.
Consciousness includes awareness of all of the following
psychoactive drugs.
Chemical substances that modify mental, emotional, or behavioral functioning are referred to as
24 hours in length.
Cicadian rhythms are biological cycles that are
The EEG pattern associated with normal, waking, alert states is
rebound effect.
After being deprived of REM sleep for several days, when first allowed uninterrupted sleep people tend to spend additional time in REM sleep. This increase in REM sleep is called the
still an open question
The debate over the mental state of a hypnotized person is
The following are common effects of hypnosis
auditory and visual hallucinations, the reduction of inhibitions, some resistance to pain
internal biological clock
The Cicada's ability to burrow up from the ground when exactly 17 years have past illustrates the amazing feat performed by the
codeine, morphine, heroin
These are all narcotics
The paradox concerning REM sleep is while
it is a deep sleep, the brain wave pattern resemble the pattern of an aler and awake individual.
exposure to light.
What appears to be responsible for regulatin circadian rhythm?
A disease marked by sudden and irresistible onset of sleep during normal waking hours is
stages 1,2,3, and 4
NREM sleep consists of which stages of sleep?
restoril, sonata, lunesta
These drugs treat insomnia
REM and slow-wave sleep.
Results from a variety of selective deprivation sleep studies have shown that people have a specific need for