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history final exam review
Terms in this set (100)
the efforts of capitalists states in the west to seize markets, cheap raw materials, and lucrative avenues for investment in the countries beyond western civilization
Christianity, commerce, and civilization
most famous empire builder from Britain
most renowned missionary, Scottish doctor, created the 3 C's
western Africa is where the slave trade is occurring, later on the British will stop the slave trade and mines for gold at the gold coast
turkish general that expanded egyptś influence out of it's boundaries introduced many reforms to Egypt to modernize it
connects the Mediterranean to the Indian ocean, when under construction but brought little immediate benefit, built by the French and taken over by the British
Afrikaans-speaking farmers, dutch descendants who were in Africa
south african tribal people
set ground rules for future annexations of african territory by European nations, split africa into different colonies so they could reduce fighting between all European nations
persuaded many that it was in the interests of the African people, as well as their conquerors, to be introduced more rapidly to the benefits of Western civilization, title of a poem by Rudyard Kipling
White Man's Burden
took place in india, The rebellion is also known as India's First War of Independence, happened because the weapons they used went against their beliefs
from Manchuria in china, have a difficult time maintaining their possessions, also known as the Qing dynasty, population serge, taxes, and starvation lead to the decline and rebellion (Taiping) of the Manchu's
lasted three years, demonstrated British superiority, firepower, and military tactics; opium is a very addictive drug that the British imported to china, the Chinese government was upset so they sent a letter saying they would not traded rubart with them if they did not stop; war started
The Opium War
in 1842, the Chinese agreed to open five coastal ports to British trade
Treaty of Nanjing
result of internal economic problems
Qing agreed to humilation new concessions: the legalization of the opium trade, the opening of additional ports to foreign trade, and the cession of the peninsula
Treaty of Tianjin
opposite the island of Hong Kong
area controlled by another government, European nation has bought their way into controlling that nation; in China the British were very big influences
Spheres of Influence
(sino means china) The First Sino-Japanese War (1 August 1894 - 17 April 1895) was fought between the Qing Empire of China and the Empire of Japan, primarily over control of Korea, Japanese won
all powers should join together to guarantee the territorial and administrative integrity of the Chinese Empire; people can come in and voice their opinion
Open Door Notes
In 1900, in what became known as the Boxer Rebellion (or the Boxer Uprising), a Chinese secret organization called the Society of the Righteous and Harmonious Fists led an uprising in northern China against the spread of Western and Japanese influence there.
Sun's followers launched an uprising in the industrial center of Wuhan, seeked a democracy
Revolution of 1911
lead american fleet war ships to japan, Delivered the letter from President Millard Fillmore asking for the opening of foreign relations between the two countries
modernized japan, modernist outlook of the Satcho, restored emperor of power
militarism, alliance system, imperialism, nationalism
archduke of Austria, assassinated by Serbian terrorists, spark in the powder Keg
made by General alfred Von Schlieffen, the plan was set to be a two-front war with France and Russia. The plan called for a minimal troop deployment against Russia while most of the German army would make a rapid invasion of France. The western front plan was to advance through neutral Belgium. Then redeploy to Eastern Front after taking Paris. the plan doesn't work
triple entente- France Russia and great Britain
triple alliance- Germany, Italy, Austria- Hungary
Triple Entente vs. Triple Alliance
consisted of Austria-hungary, Germany, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman empire vs. Allies- Serbia, Russia (withdrew), France, Britain, U.S, Italy (left the central powers) Japan, New Zealand, and Australia
Central Powers vs. Allies: Central Powers
Germans were stopped twenty miles outside of paris with this battle,
became a stalemate
Battle of the Marne
american helped reinforce the western front, the german offense is stopped and leads to the armistiff
second battle of the Marne
bloodiest battle of the war, high casualties
Battle of Verdun
Italy goes against the ottoman empire, most successful engagement
Battle of Gallipoli
Siberian peasant, the Tsarian regarded as a holy man because he stopped the bleeding of her hemophiliac son, Alexis. His influence made him a power behind the throne, interfered in government affairs, destroyed the monarchy
last tsar of Russia, brought on Russian revolution, abdicates (steps down) from his throne due to failing to resolve the bread march
Tsar Nicholas II
capital city in Russia (formally Saint Petersburg) series of strikes broke out here. actions and rebellions of working class women changed Russian history
headed by Alexander Kerensky. Decided to carry on the war to pervserve Russia's honor
head of provisional government, continues to fight in world war I which really hurts him and is devastating to the country
Lenin signed this with Germany and gave up Poland, Ukraine, Finland, and Baltic provinces
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
leader of the Bolsheviks, trained as a lawyer in 1887 he turned into a dedicated enemy of tsarist Russia after his brother was executed
(1879-1953), takes over after Lenin's death; He avoided join the Right and Left movements in the politburo. He eventually used his post to gain complete control of the communist party. Trotsky was expelled in 1927 and Stalin kills him. By 1929 he eliminated the old order and made a dictatorship
revolutionary, chairman of the Petrogard soviet
small faction of Russian Social Democratic lead by Vladimir Ulianov or Lenin
represented great Britain in the big four, said "Germany will pay"
David Lloyd George
represented France in the big four, wanted to have security, against Germany
secretary of war
represented u.s. in the big four, gives a speech to congress that is the blueprint for the Versailles treaty called "fourteen points"
Signed on June 28, 1919, it punished the central powers and especially Germany. Germany had to pay for all the reparations and their army and air force are demilitarized (lower the number of men in their army and air force)
Treaty of Versailles
The conference in Paris which the Big Four were at. Many treaties and agreements were signed here. This led to the league of Nations being made.
Paris Peace Conference
made from Paris Peace conference, United States refused to join, it failed because of america; created to prevent future wars.
League of Nations
A downturn in domestic economies an an international financial crisis created by the collapse of the American stock market in 1929. In 1932, 1 in every 4 British workers were unemployed. Between 1929-1932, industrial production plummeted almost 50% in the US and nearly as much in Germany. Unemployed and homeless people filled up the streets. Women were able to find low paying jobs as servants, house cleaners, or laundresses while many men were unemployed. Communism then took over as people wanted jobs back and money for their family. 25% of people are unemployed; of all European nations Germany suffers the mist and does not really impact France because of it's diversity
The Great Depression
in Germany, German- democratic nation that accepts the treaty of Versailles, After Imperial Germany came to an end with Germany losing WWI, this was established. It was full of problems from the start. It had no outstanding political leaders.
all of them have western values and ideas, Indian nationalism refers to the many underlying forces that defined the principles of the Indian independence movement, and strongly continue to influence the politics of India, as well as being the heart of many contrasting ideologies that have caused ethnic and religious conflict in Indian society.
practices Saudi graha (non-violent rebellion) preeminent leader of the Indian independence movement in British-ruled India
The Balfour Declaration was a letter dated 2 November 1917 from the United Kingdom's Foreign secretary Arthur James Balfour to Walter Rothschild, 2nd Baron Rothschild, a leader of the British Jewish community, for transmission to the Zionist Federation of Great Britain and Ireland.
turkish war hero that wants to westernize turkey
wanted to seize power in Tehran
The Communist International, abbreviated as Comintern and also known as the Third International (1919-1943), was an international communist organization that advocated world communism.
democratic reformer who wants to unify china
students in China are protesting Japan
May Fourth Movement
Italy, bestowed the first fascist movement in Europe, established a new political group, Fascio di combattimento
armed fascists who formed and turned loose attacks on socialists offices and newspapers
made Mussolini prime minister of Italy because mussolini were intimidating
King Victor Emmanuel
tried to control all forms of mass media like: newspapers, radios, and cinemas in order to use propaganda as an instrument to integrate masses into the state
Austrian who lead the Nazi's and appointed chancellor by Von Hindenberg, promises to strengthen the German economy, pump primed the economy by putting money in hoping to invest (controlled the economy)
empowered the government to dispense with constitutional forms for four years while it issued laws
hitler staged an armed uprising against the government in Munich in November of 1923, tried to overthrow the government
Beer Hall Putsch
translated to "my struggle", book by hitler that he wrote when he was in jail
excluded German Jews from German citizenship and forbid marriages and relationships between Jews and Germans, essentially separated Jews from Germans politically, socially and legally, leads to the holocaust
night of shattered glass
goal was to transform the agrarian soviet union into an industrial country virtually over night
agriculture did this during the first two five-year plans, tries to bring all farmland under government control, a grewta famine in Ukraine happens because of this
england and framce appease him and give Hitler what he wnats
Appeasement- giving kand to another nation
a self-sufficient economic community designed to provide mutual benefits
Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere
(Germany and soviet Union) was signed by Stalin and Hitler, surprised the world, Hitler goes back on it
nonaggression act gave Hitler the freedom to invade Poland
Invasion of Poland
lightning of war
annhilation of the Jewish people
approach to solving "the problems" of the jewish people
attempt to exterminate Jewish people and create a master race
Leader of the Afrika Korps
wanted to break though British defenses
The Tehran Conference was a meeting between U.S. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin in Tehran, Iran
the defeat of the Germany was a forgone closure, plan on how to restructure Europe
western relations with the soviets were deteriorating
(1892-1980), The leader of the Communist resistance movement. After the war he established an independent communist state. Leader of Yugoslavia
(Josip Broz), Tito
This place was a notable exception to the pattern of Soviet dominance in Eastern Europe. The Communist Party had led resistance to the Nazis during the war and easily assumed power when the war had ended.
The former prime minister of England, gave the Iron Curtain speech
Made by Winston Churchill (after he was prime minister), Happened on March 5, 1946, Happened before a college audience in Fulton Missouri (Westminster College), He said it because he wanted to tell that the Soviet Union policy was bad and needed to be stopped, He was saying that Europe had been divided into two hostile camps splitting Germany and it was a war against communism.
Happened because of a civil war in Greece. Said in essence that the US would provide money for countries who claimed to be threatened by communist expansion. Happened on March 12, 1947.
(June 1947) This was a European Recovery Program which followed up the Truman doctrine. It Provided $13 billion for the economic recovery of war torn Europe. From the soviet perspective this was capitalist imperialism. It was proposed by America
A US diplomat with much knowledge of Soviet Affairs. He advocated the containment theory.
By 1947, people were used to the east and west split in Europe. A well known US diplomat named George Kennan advocated a policy of containment. The Soviets blockaded Berlin in 1948 and containment of the Soviet Union became formal US policy.
Germany was split up into four of these, there was the Soviet Union zone, US zone, French zone, and the British zone. Also Germany was split up into east and west Germany at the Berlin wall.
1948-1949) Germany was divided by allied powers. Things were taken from the American and British side of Germany and sent back to those places. Same for Soviet Union
After the 1953 workers' revolt was crushed by Soviet tanks, a fight between east and west Germany broke out in the city of Berlin. This created economic problems and in 1961 led the East German government building a wall separating East Berlin from West Berlin, the borders were also heavily securified.
This was a war that was fought mainly between the Soviet Union and the US and there was no actual weaponry used. The belligerents were fighting because of the Soviet Union wanting communism.
When WWII ended in the pacific the relations between US and China under this man were bad. After the war the US realized that China's government was corrupt and this man would not send his army anywhere.
This man was the Chairman of the Chinese communists that took over. He caused the war between the nationalist government and communists. Millions of peasants went to fight in his PLA (People's liberation army) because Zedong promised he would help him. His army won the civil war and he made Kai-Shek's army go to his army.
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