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NLN PAX RN Study Guide IV

PAX study guide terms to be defined
STUDY
PLAY
homogenous mixture
a mixture in which the composition is uniform throughout
solution
a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances uniformly dispersed throughout
filtration
a process that separates a solid from the liquid in a heterogeneous mixture
solvent
a liquid substance capable of dissolving other substances
solute
the dissolved substance in a solution
tincture
A solution, usually alcoholic, of some principle used in medicine.
chromatography
the process of seperating a chemical mixture into its individual substances
heterogeneous mixture
least mixed, does not appear to be same throughout, particles easy to see
emulsion
A uniform mixture of two unmixable liquids; it is often temporary (oil in water)
solubility
the ability of one substance to dissolve in another at a given temperature and pressure
distillation
the process of purifying a liquid by boiling it and condensing its vapors
chemical change
a change that produces matter with a different composition than the original matter
physical change
a change from one state (solid or liquid or gas) to another without a change in chemical composition
reaction
a process in which one or more substances are changed into others
reactant
a chemical substance that is present at the start of a chemical reaction
product
a chemical substance formed as a result of a chemical reaction
synthesis
a chemical reaction in which two or more simple substances combine to form a new, more complex substance
single replacement reactions
element reacting with a compound atom of the single element replaces an element in the compound
double displacement reactions
where two compounds react to form two new compounds
acid base reaction
When an acid and base mix together, neutralize one another's properties, and form a salt.
neutralization reaction
a chemical reaction in which an acid and a base interact with the formation of a salt
acid
any of various water-soluble compounds having a sour taste and capable of turning litmus red and reacting with a base to form a salt
base
any of various water-soluble compounds capable of turning litmus blue and reacting with an acid to form a salt and water
pH scale
a range of numbers used to describe how acidic or basic a solution is; ranges from 0 (most acidic) to 14 (most basic)
indicator
a substance that changes color to indicate the presence of some ion or substance
decomposition reactions
when a molecule is broken down into smaller molecules, atoms, or ions.
activation energy
energy needed to get a reaction started
catalyst
a substance that initiates or accelerates a chemical reaction without itself being affected
exothermic
chemical reaction in which energy is primarily given off in the form of heat
endothermic
describes a reaction that absorbs energy from the surroundings
equlibrium
When molecules are moving form greater to lesser concentration in an attempt to reach a balanced state or ao state of.
organic compound
a covalently bonded compound that contains carbon, excluding carbonates and oxides
hydrocarbon
organic molecule composed of only carbon and hydrogen atoms
alcohol
A substituted hydrocarbon that contains one or more hydroxyl groups(-OH)
aldehyde
An organic molecule with a carbonyl group located at the end of the carbon skeleton.
ketone
An organic compound with a carbonyl group of which the carbon atom is bonded to two other carbons.
structural formula
an expanded molecular formula showing the arrangement of atoms within the molecule
carbohydrate
an essential structural component of living cells and source of energy for animals
monosaccharide
single sugar molecule (monomer)
disaccharide
A double sugar, consisting of two monosaccharides joined by dehydration synthesis.
polysaccharide
a complex molecule composed of three or more monosaccharides (sugar)
starch
polysaccharide made up of a chain of glucose molecules; food storage molecule for plants
glycogen
The form in which the liver and muscles store glucose
lipid
macromolecule made mainly from carbon and hydrogen atoms; includes fats, oils, and waxes
fatty acid
an organic acid that is contained in lipids, such as fats or oils
glycerol
Three-carbon compound with three hydroxyl groups; component of fats and oils.
protein
an organic compound that is made of one or more chains of amino acids and that is a principal component of all cells
amino acid
a small molecule that is linked chemically to other amino acids to form proteins
dehydration synthesis
a chemical reaction in which large molecules are formed by removing water from smaller molecules and joining them together
hydrolysis
a chemical process in which a compound is broken down and changed into other compounds by taking up the elements of water
Lugol's solution
used to test for starch (iodine)
Benedict's solution
solution to test for glucose.
displacement
distance and direction of an object's change in position from the starting point
motion
an object's change in position over time when compared with a reference point
speed
distance traveled by an object per unit time
velocity
the speed of an object in a particular direction
acceleration
a rate of change of velocity
deceleration
object slowing down or negative acceleration
momentum
Mass times Velocity
conservation of momentum
the law that states that the total momentum in a system of interacting objects always remains the same
vector
a quantity with magnitude and direction.
newtons first law
an object at rest will stay at rest, an object that is moving will stay moving unless disturbed by an unbalanced force.
inertia
the tendency of a body to maintain is state of rest or uniform motion unless acted upon by an external force
newtons second law
the net force of an object is equal to the product of it's acceleration and mass.
force
the influence that produces a change in a physical quantity
newton
A unit of measure that equals the force required to accelerate 1 kilogram of mass at 1 meter per second per second
friction
the force that opposes the motion of one surface as it moves across another surface
gravity
the force of attraction between all masses in the universe
weight
force of gravity on an object
torque
twisting force; producing rotation
lever arm
The perpendicular distance from the axis of rotation to a line drawn along the direction of the force
centripetal force
any force that causes an object to move in a circular path
newtons third law
for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction, for every force or action there is an equal and opposite force or reaction
energy
the capacity of a physical system to do work
kinetic energy
the energy of motion
potential energy
Energy that is stored and held in readiness
work
a manifestation of energy "work equals force times distance"
joule
a unit of work equal to one newton-meter
power
the rate of doing work
machine
A device for overcoming resistance at one point by applying force at some other point
efficiency
equals the output work divided by the input work; expressed as a percentage
simple machine
a device for overcoming resistance at one point by applying force at some other point
inclined plane
slated surface used to raise an object
wedge
an inclined plane that moves
screw
a simple machine of the inclined-plane type consisting of a spirally threaded cylindrical rod that engages with a similarly threaded hole
lever
Any rigid rod or plank that rotates or pivots about a point (or fulcrum). MA= distance from fulcrum to input force/ distance from fulcrum to output force. Ex: seasaw
pulley
a simple machine that consists of a rope that fits into a groove in a wheel
wheel and axle
a lever that rotates in a circle
compound machine
is a combination of 2 or more machines
density
the amount of mass in a given space; mass per unit volume
atom
the smallest component of an element having the chemical properties of the element
kinetic theory
explanation of the behavior of molecules in matter; states that all matter is made of constantly moving particles that collide without losing energy
solid
a substance that has a definite shape and volume
liquid
a substance in the fluid state of matter having no fixed shape but a fixed volume
gas
A state of matter that does not have a definite shape or volume
molecules
groups of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds
pressure
the force applied to a unit area of surface
boyle's law
The relationship between the pressure and volume of a gas at constant temperture; when volume increase, pressure decreases., P1V1=P2V2
charles's law
that for a fixe amount of gas at aconstant pressure the volume of the tgas increases as its temperature increases.
temperature
a measure of how hot or cold something is
heat
a form of energy that is transferred by a difference in temperature
specific heat
amount of heat required to increase the temperature of water
phase
a distinct state of matter in a system
change
exchange or replace with another, usually of the same kind or category
latent heat
heat absorbed or radiated during a change of phase at a constant temperature and pressure
phase change
the reversible physical change that occurs when a substance changes from one state of matter to another
specific heat
the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1g of a substance 1 degree Celsius
celcius
based on freezing point of water, freezing point of water is 0 degrees celcius, boiling point of water is 100 degrees celcius
kelvin
a unit of measurement of the movement of molecules
fahrenheit
A unit for measuring temperature in the customary system
ice point
The temperature at which ice melts or water freezes
steam point
The point at which water at standard pressure boils
triple point
the temperature and pressure conditions at which the solid, liquid, and gaseous phases of a substance coexist at equilibrium
absolute zero
The coldest temperature, 0 Kelvin, that can be reached. It is the hypothetical temperature at which all molecular motion stops.
motion
the act of changing location from one place to another
wave
a movement like that of an ocean wave
longitudinal wave
a wave in which the particles of the medium vibrate back and forth along the path that the wave travels
transverse wave
a wave that moves the medium in a direction perpendicular to the direction in which the wave travels
periodic motion
any motion that repeats at regular time intervals
period
an amount of time
frequency
the ratio of the number of observations in a statistical category to the total number of observations
hertz
unit of measurement for frequency
amplitude
the maximum displacement of a periodic wave
crest
the highest point of a wave
trough
a narrow depression (as in the earth or between ocean waves or in the ocean bed)
wave length
the length from one crest to another
diffraction
when light passes sharp edges or goes through narrow slits the rays are deflected and produce fringes of light and dark bands
interference
a wave interaction that occurs when two or more waves overlap
resonance
a vibration of large amplitude produced by a relatively small vibration near the same frequency of vibration as the natural frequency of the resonating system
photon
a particle of electromagnetic radiation having zero mass and carrying a quantum of energy
electromagnetic waves
a form of energy that can move through the vacuum of space
electromagnetic spectrum
the entire frequency range of electromagnetic waves
visible light
electromagnetic radiation that can produce a visual sensation
pitch
the property of sound that varies with variation in the frequency of vibration
loudness
the human perception of how much energy a sound wave carries
doppler effect
change in the apparent frequency of a wave as observer and source move toward or away from each other
reflection
a likeness in which left and right are reversed
refraction
The bending of a wave as it passes at an angle from one medium to another
dispersion
The relative distribution or arrangement of it's individuals within a given amount of space.
lens
a transparent optical device used to converge or diverge transmitted light and to form images
convex lens
lens such that a beam of light passing through it is brought to a point or focus
focal point
a point of convergence of light (or other radiation) or a point from which it diverges
radio waves
Lowest frequency electromagnetic waves
infrared waves
long wave lengths,penetrate the deepest and have most heat
ultraviolet light
electromagnetic radiation having a wavelength between 1 and 380 nanometers
x-rays
radiographs, film images, creaged by projection of high energy electromagnetci waves through an area of a patients body onto a photographic plate, shows bony structures and organ outlines.
gamma rays
waves of energy given off by radioisotopes
neutron
neutral particle of an atom
proton
positively charged particle
electron
negatively charged particle
Coulomb's Law
The amount of electric force between charged objects depends on the distance between the objects and the magnitude of the charges.
magnetism
force of repulsion or attraction between like and unlike poles
magnetic field
The energy field created by the spinning of the inner and outer cores.
torque
twisting force; force producing rotation
electrical potential energy
the ability to move an electric charge from one point to another
transformer
an electrical device by which alternating current of one voltage is changed to another voltage
voltage
the rate at which energy is drawn from a source that produces a flow of electricity in a circuit
voltmeter
measures voltage
current
a flow of electricity through a conductor
ammeter
a meter that measures the flow of electrical current in amperes
resistor
an electrical device that resists the flow of electrical current
series circuit
the electrical devices are connected in one continuous loop
ampere
a former unit of electric current (slightly smaller than the SI ampere)
parallel circuit
circuit in which electric current can follow more than one path
power
the rate of doing work
watt
a unit of power equal to 1 joule per second
mass defect
the amount by which the mass of an atomic nucleus is less than the sum of the masses of its constituent particles
radioactivity
the spontaneous emission of a stream of particles or electromagnetic rays in nuclear decay
radioactivity decay
the spontaneous decay of certain unstable atomic nuclei
transmutation
The process that occurs when an atom undergoes radioactive decay.
nuclear reaction
(physics) a process that alters the energy or structure or composition of atomic nuclei
fusion
the act of fusing (or melting) together
fission
reproduction of some unicellular organisms by division of the cell into two more or less equal parts
quantum mechanics
the branch of quantum physics that accounts for matter at the atomic level
photoelectric effect
The emission of electrons from a metal when light shines on the metal
ionization
the process of adding electrons to or removing electrons from an atom or group of atoms
theory of relativity
the theory that space and time are relative concepts rather than absolute concepts