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NLN PAX RN Study Guide IV

PAX study guide terms to be defined
homogenous mixture
a mixture in which the composition is uniform throughout
a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances uniformly dispersed throughout
a process that separates a solid from the liquid in a heterogeneous mixture
a liquid substance capable of dissolving other substances
the dissolved substance in a solution
A solution, usually alcoholic, of some principle used in medicine.
the process of seperating a chemical mixture into its individual substances
heterogeneous mixture
least mixed, does not appear to be same throughout, particles easy to see
A uniform mixture of two unmixable liquids; it is often temporary (oil in water)
the ability of one substance to dissolve in another at a given temperature and pressure
the process of purifying a liquid by boiling it and condensing its vapors
chemical change
a change that produces matter with a different composition than the original matter
physical change
a change from one state (solid or liquid or gas) to another without a change in chemical composition
a process in which one or more substances are changed into others
a chemical substance that is present at the start of a chemical reaction
a chemical substance formed as a result of a chemical reaction
a chemical reaction in which two or more simple substances combine to form a new, more complex substance
single replacement reactions
element reacting with a compound atom of the single element replaces an element in the compound
double displacement reactions
where two compounds react to form two new compounds
acid base reaction
When an acid and base mix together, neutralize one another's properties, and form a salt.
neutralization reaction
a chemical reaction in which an acid and a base interact with the formation of a salt
any of various water-soluble compounds having a sour taste and capable of turning litmus red and reacting with a base to form a salt
any of various water-soluble compounds capable of turning litmus blue and reacting with an acid to form a salt and water
pH scale
a range of numbers used to describe how acidic or basic a solution is; ranges from 0 (most acidic) to 14 (most basic)
a substance that changes color to indicate the presence of some ion or substance
decomposition reactions
when a molecule is broken down into smaller molecules, atoms, or ions.
activation energy
energy needed to get a reaction started
a substance that initiates or accelerates a chemical reaction without itself being affected
chemical reaction in which energy is primarily given off in the form of heat
describes a reaction that absorbs energy from the surroundings
When molecules are moving form greater to lesser concentration in an attempt to reach a balanced state or ao state of.
organic compound
a covalently bonded compound that contains carbon, excluding carbonates and oxides
organic molecule composed of only carbon and hydrogen atoms
A substituted hydrocarbon that contains one or more hydroxyl groups(-OH)
An organic molecule with a carbonyl group located at the end of the carbon skeleton.
An organic compound with a carbonyl group of which the carbon atom is bonded to two other carbons.
structural formula
an expanded molecular formula showing the arrangement of atoms within the molecule
an essential structural component of living cells and source of energy for animals
single sugar molecule (monomer)
A double sugar, consisting of two monosaccharides joined by dehydration synthesis.
a complex molecule composed of three or more monosaccharides (sugar)
polysaccharide made up of a chain of glucose molecules; food storage molecule for plants
The form in which the liver and muscles store glucose
macromolecule made mainly from carbon and hydrogen atoms; includes fats, oils, and waxes
fatty acid
an organic acid that is contained in lipids, such as fats or oils
Three-carbon compound with three hydroxyl groups; component of fats and oils.
an organic compound that is made of one or more chains of amino acids and that is a principal component of all cells
amino acid
a small molecule that is linked chemically to other amino acids to form proteins
dehydration synthesis
a chemical reaction in which large molecules are formed by removing water from smaller molecules and joining them together
a chemical process in which a compound is broken down and changed into other compounds by taking up the elements of water
Lugol's solution
used to test for starch (iodine)
Benedict's solution
solution to test for glucose.
distance and direction of an object's change in position from the starting point
an object's change in position over time when compared with a reference point
distance traveled by an object per unit time
the speed of an object in a particular direction
a rate of change of velocity
object slowing down or negative acceleration
Mass times Velocity
conservation of momentum
the law that states that the total momentum in a system of interacting objects always remains the same
a quantity with magnitude and direction.
newtons first law
an object at rest will stay at rest, an object that is moving will stay moving unless disturbed by an unbalanced force.
the tendency of a body to maintain is state of rest or uniform motion unless acted upon by an external force
newtons second law
the net force of an object is equal to the product of it's acceleration and mass.
the influence that produces a change in a physical quantity
A unit of measure that equals the force required to accelerate 1 kilogram of mass at 1 meter per second per second
the force that opposes the motion of one surface as it moves across another surface
the force of attraction between all masses in the universe
force of gravity on an object
twisting force; producing rotation
lever arm
The perpendicular distance from the axis of rotation to a line drawn along the direction of the force
centripetal force
any force that causes an object to move in a circular path
newtons third law
for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction, for every force or action there is an equal and opposite force or reaction
the capacity of a physical system to do work
kinetic energy
the energy of motion
potential energy
Energy that is stored and held in readiness
a manifestation of energy "work equals force times distance"
a unit of work equal to one newton-meter
the rate of doing work
A device for overcoming resistance at one point by applying force at some other point
equals the output work divided by the input work; expressed as a percentage
simple machine
a device for overcoming resistance at one point by applying force at some other point
inclined plane
slated surface used to raise an object
an inclined plane that moves
a simple machine of the inclined-plane type consisting of a spirally threaded cylindrical rod that engages with a similarly threaded hole
Any rigid rod or plank that rotates or pivots about a point (or fulcrum). MA= distance from fulcrum to input force/ distance from fulcrum to output force. Ex: seasaw
a simple machine that consists of a rope that fits into a groove in a wheel
wheel and axle
a lever that rotates in a circle
compound machine
is a combination of 2 or more machines
the amount of mass in a given space; mass per unit volume
the smallest component of an element having the chemical properties of the element
kinetic theory
explanation of the behavior of molecules in matter; states that all matter is made of constantly moving particles that collide without losing energy
a substance that has a definite shape and volume
a substance in the fluid state of matter having no fixed shape but a fixed volume
A state of matter that does not have a definite shape or volume
groups of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds
the force applied to a unit area of surface
boyle's law
The relationship between the pressure and volume of a gas at constant temperture; when volume increase, pressure decreases., P1V1=P2V2
charles's law
that for a fixe amount of gas at aconstant pressure the volume of the tgas increases as its temperature increases.
a measure of how hot or cold something is
a form of energy that is transferred by a difference in temperature
specific heat
amount of heat required to increase the temperature of water
a distinct state of matter in a system
exchange or replace with another, usually of the same kind or category
latent heat
heat absorbed or radiated during a change of phase at a constant temperature and pressure
phase change
the reversible physical change that occurs when a substance changes from one state of matter to another
specific heat
the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1g of a substance 1 degree Celsius
based on freezing point of water, freezing point of water is 0 degrees celcius, boiling point of water is 100 degrees celcius
a unit of measurement of the movement of molecules
A unit for measuring temperature in the customary system
ice point
The temperature at which ice melts or water freezes
steam point
The point at which water at standard pressure boils
triple point
the temperature and pressure conditions at which the solid, liquid, and gaseous phases of a substance coexist at equilibrium
absolute zero
The coldest temperature, 0 Kelvin, that can be reached. It is the hypothetical temperature at which all molecular motion stops.
the act of changing location from one place to another
a movement like that of an ocean wave
longitudinal wave
a wave in which the particles of the medium vibrate back and forth along the path that the wave travels
transverse wave
a wave that moves the medium in a direction perpendicular to the direction in which the wave travels
periodic motion
any motion that repeats at regular time intervals
an amount of time
the ratio of the number of observations in a statistical category to the total number of observations
unit of measurement for frequency
the maximum displacement of a periodic wave
the highest point of a wave
a narrow depression (as in the earth or between ocean waves or in the ocean bed)
wave length
the length from one crest to another
when light passes sharp edges or goes through narrow slits the rays are deflected and produce fringes of light and dark bands
a wave interaction that occurs when two or more waves overlap
a vibration of large amplitude produced by a relatively small vibration near the same frequency of vibration as the natural frequency of the resonating system
a particle of electromagnetic radiation having zero mass and carrying a quantum of energy
electromagnetic waves
a form of energy that can move through the vacuum of space
electromagnetic spectrum
the entire frequency range of electromagnetic waves
visible light
electromagnetic radiation that can produce a visual sensation
the property of sound that varies with variation in the frequency of vibration
the human perception of how much energy a sound wave carries
doppler effect
change in the apparent frequency of a wave as observer and source move toward or away from each other
a likeness in which left and right are reversed
The bending of a wave as it passes at an angle from one medium to another
The relative distribution or arrangement of it's individuals within a given amount of space.
a transparent optical device used to converge or diverge transmitted light and to form images
convex lens
lens such that a beam of light passing through it is brought to a point or focus
focal point
a point of convergence of light (or other radiation) or a point from which it diverges
radio waves
Lowest frequency electromagnetic waves
infrared waves
long wave lengths,penetrate the deepest and have most heat
ultraviolet light
electromagnetic radiation having a wavelength between 1 and 380 nanometers
radiographs, film images, creaged by projection of high energy electromagnetci waves through an area of a patients body onto a photographic plate, shows bony structures and organ outlines.
gamma rays
waves of energy given off by radioisotopes
neutral particle of an atom
positively charged particle
negatively charged particle
Coulomb's Law
The amount of electric force between charged objects depends on the distance between the objects and the magnitude of the charges.
force of repulsion or attraction between like and unlike poles
magnetic field
The energy field created by the spinning of the inner and outer cores.
twisting force; force producing rotation
electrical potential energy
the ability to move an electric charge from one point to another
an electrical device by which alternating current of one voltage is changed to another voltage
the rate at which energy is drawn from a source that produces a flow of electricity in a circuit
measures voltage
a flow of electricity through a conductor
a meter that measures the flow of electrical current in amperes
an electrical device that resists the flow of electrical current
series circuit
the electrical devices are connected in one continuous loop
a former unit of electric current (slightly smaller than the SI ampere)
parallel circuit
circuit in which electric current can follow more than one path
the rate of doing work
a unit of power equal to 1 joule per second
mass defect
the amount by which the mass of an atomic nucleus is less than the sum of the masses of its constituent particles
the spontaneous emission of a stream of particles or electromagnetic rays in nuclear decay
radioactivity decay
the spontaneous decay of certain unstable atomic nuclei
The process that occurs when an atom undergoes radioactive decay.
nuclear reaction
(physics) a process that alters the energy or structure or composition of atomic nuclei
the act of fusing (or melting) together
reproduction of some unicellular organisms by division of the cell into two more or less equal parts
quantum mechanics
the branch of quantum physics that accounts for matter at the atomic level
photoelectric effect
The emission of electrons from a metal when light shines on the metal
the process of adding electrons to or removing electrons from an atom or group of atoms
theory of relativity
the theory that space and time are relative concepts rather than absolute concepts