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PAX study guide terms to be defined

homogenous mixture

a mixture in which the composition is uniform throughout


a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances uniformly dispersed throughout


a process that separates a solid from the liquid in a heterogeneous mixture


a liquid substance capable of dissolving other substances


the dissolved substance in a solution


A solution, usually alcoholic, of some principle used in medicine.


the process of seperating a chemical mixture into its individual substances

heterogeneous mixture

least mixed, does not appear to be same throughout, particles easy to see


A uniform mixture of two unmixable liquids; it is often temporary (oil in water)


the ability of one substance to dissolve in another at a given temperature and pressure


the process of purifying a liquid by boiling it and condensing its vapors

chemical change

a change that produces matter with a different composition than the original matter

physical change

a change from one state (solid or liquid or gas) to another without a change in chemical composition


a process in which one or more substances are changed into others


a chemical substance that is present at the start of a chemical reaction


a chemical substance formed as a result of a chemical reaction


a chemical reaction in which two or more simple substances combine to form a new, more complex substance

single replacement reactions

element reacting with a compound atom of the single element replaces an element in the compound

double displacement reactions

where two compounds react to form two new compounds

acid base reaction

When an acid and base mix together, neutralize one another's properties, and form a salt.

neutralization reaction

a chemical reaction in which an acid and a base interact with the formation of a salt


any of various water-soluble compounds having a sour taste and capable of turning litmus red and reacting with a base to form a salt


any of various water-soluble compounds capable of turning litmus blue and reacting with an acid to form a salt and water

pH scale

a range of numbers used to describe how acidic or basic a solution is; ranges from 0 (most acidic) to 14 (most basic)


a substance that changes color to indicate the presence of some ion or substance

decomposition reactions

when a molecule is broken down into smaller molecules, atoms, or ions.

activation energy

energy needed to get a reaction started


a substance that initiates or accelerates a chemical reaction without itself being affected


chemical reaction in which energy is primarily given off in the form of heat


describes a reaction that absorbs energy from the surroundings


When molecules are moving form greater to lesser concentration in an attempt to reach a balanced state or ao state of.

organic compound

a covalently bonded compound that contains carbon, excluding carbonates and oxides


organic molecule composed of only carbon and hydrogen atoms


A substituted hydrocarbon that contains one or more hydroxyl groups(-OH)


An organic molecule with a carbonyl group located at the end of the carbon skeleton.


An organic compound with a carbonyl group of which the carbon atom is bonded to two other carbons.

structural formula

an expanded molecular formula showing the arrangement of atoms within the molecule


an essential structural component of living cells and source of energy for animals


single sugar molecule (monomer)


A double sugar, consisting of two monosaccharides joined by dehydration synthesis.


a complex molecule composed of three or more monosaccharides (sugar)


polysaccharide made up of a chain of glucose molecules; food storage molecule for plants


The form in which the liver and muscles store glucose


macromolecule made mainly from carbon and hydrogen atoms; includes fats, oils, and waxes

fatty acid

an organic acid that is contained in lipids, such as fats or oils


Three-carbon compound with three hydroxyl groups; component of fats and oils.


an organic compound that is made of one or more chains of amino acids and that is a principal component of all cells

amino acid

a small molecule that is linked chemically to other amino acids to form proteins

dehydration synthesis

a chemical reaction in which large molecules are formed by removing water from smaller molecules and joining them together


a chemical process in which a compound is broken down and changed into other compounds by taking up the elements of water

Lugol's solution

used to test for starch (iodine)

Benedict's solution

solution to test for glucose.


distance and direction of an object's change in position from the starting point


an object's change in position over time when compared with a reference point


distance traveled by an object per unit time


the speed of an object in a particular direction


a rate of change of velocity


object slowing down or negative acceleration


Mass times Velocity

conservation of momentum

the law that states that the total momentum in a system of interacting objects always remains the same


a quantity with magnitude and direction.

newtons first law

an object at rest will stay at rest, an object that is moving will stay moving unless disturbed by an unbalanced force.


the tendency of a body to maintain is state of rest or uniform motion unless acted upon by an external force

newtons second law

the net force of an object is equal to the product of it's acceleration and mass.


the influence that produces a change in a physical quantity


A unit of measure that equals the force required to accelerate 1 kilogram of mass at 1 meter per second per second


the force that opposes the motion of one surface as it moves across another surface


the force of attraction between all masses in the universe


force of gravity on an object


twisting force; producing rotation

lever arm

The perpendicular distance from the axis of rotation to a line drawn along the direction of the force

centripetal force

any force that causes an object to move in a circular path

newtons third law

for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction, for every force or action there is an equal and opposite force or reaction


the capacity of a physical system to do work

kinetic energy

the energy of motion

potential energy

Energy that is stored and held in readiness


a manifestation of energy "work equals force times distance"


a unit of work equal to one newton-meter


the rate of doing work


A device for overcoming resistance at one point by applying force at some other point


equals the output work divided by the input work; expressed as a percentage

simple machine

a device for overcoming resistance at one point by applying force at some other point

inclined plane

slated surface used to raise an object


an inclined plane that moves


a simple machine of the inclined-plane type consisting of a spirally threaded cylindrical rod that engages with a similarly threaded hole


Any rigid rod or plank that rotates or pivots about a point (or fulcrum). MA= distance from fulcrum to input force/ distance from fulcrum to output force. Ex: seasaw


a simple machine that consists of a rope that fits into a groove in a wheel

wheel and axle

a lever that rotates in a circle

compound machine

is a combination of 2 or more machines


the amount of mass in a given space; mass per unit volume


the smallest component of an element having the chemical properties of the element

kinetic theory

explanation of the behavior of molecules in matter; states that all matter is made of constantly moving particles that collide without losing energy


a substance that has a definite shape and volume


a substance in the fluid state of matter having no fixed shape but a fixed volume


A state of matter that does not have a definite shape or volume


groups of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds


the force applied to a unit area of surface

boyle's law

The relationship between the pressure and volume of a gas at constant temperture; when volume increase, pressure decreases., P1V1=P2V2

charles's law

that for a fixe amount of gas at aconstant pressure the volume of the tgas increases as its temperature increases.


a measure of how hot or cold something is


a form of energy that is transferred by a difference in temperature

specific heat

amount of heat required to increase the temperature of water


a distinct state of matter in a system


exchange or replace with another, usually of the same kind or category

latent heat

heat absorbed or radiated during a change of phase at a constant temperature and pressure

phase change

the reversible physical change that occurs when a substance changes from one state of matter to another

specific heat

the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1g of a substance 1 degree Celsius


based on freezing point of water, freezing point of water is 0 degrees celcius, boiling point of water is 100 degrees celcius


a unit of measurement of the movement of molecules


A unit for measuring temperature in the customary system

ice point

The temperature at which ice melts or water freezes

steam point

The point at which water at standard pressure boils

triple point

the temperature and pressure conditions at which the solid, liquid, and gaseous phases of a substance coexist at equilibrium

absolute zero

The coldest temperature, 0 Kelvin, that can be reached. It is the hypothetical temperature at which all molecular motion stops.


the act of changing location from one place to another


a movement like that of an ocean wave

longitudinal wave

a wave in which the particles of the medium vibrate back and forth along the path that the wave travels

transverse wave

a wave that moves the medium in a direction perpendicular to the direction in which the wave travels

periodic motion

any motion that repeats at regular time intervals


an amount of time


the ratio of the number of observations in a statistical category to the total number of observations


unit of measurement for frequency


the maximum displacement of a periodic wave


the highest point of a wave


a narrow depression (as in the earth or between ocean waves or in the ocean bed)

wave length

the length from one crest to another


when light passes sharp edges or goes through narrow slits the rays are deflected and produce fringes of light and dark bands


a wave interaction that occurs when two or more waves overlap


a vibration of large amplitude produced by a relatively small vibration near the same frequency of vibration as the natural frequency of the resonating system


a particle of electromagnetic radiation having zero mass and carrying a quantum of energy

electromagnetic waves

a form of energy that can move through the vacuum of space

electromagnetic spectrum

the entire frequency range of electromagnetic waves

visible light

electromagnetic radiation that can produce a visual sensation


the property of sound that varies with variation in the frequency of vibration


the human perception of how much energy a sound wave carries

doppler effect

change in the apparent frequency of a wave as observer and source move toward or away from each other


a likeness in which left and right are reversed


The bending of a wave as it passes at an angle from one medium to another


The relative distribution or arrangement of it's individuals within a given amount of space.


a transparent optical device used to converge or diverge transmitted light and to form images

convex lens

lens such that a beam of light passing through it is brought to a point or focus

focal point

a point of convergence of light (or other radiation) or a point from which it diverges

radio waves

Lowest frequency electromagnetic waves

infrared waves

long wave lengths,penetrate the deepest and have most heat

ultraviolet light

electromagnetic radiation having a wavelength between 1 and 380 nanometers


radiographs, film images, creaged by projection of high energy electromagnetci waves through an area of a patients body onto a photographic plate, shows bony structures and organ outlines.

gamma rays

waves of energy given off by radioisotopes


neutral particle of an atom


positively charged particle

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