Function of organelles in both Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

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Cell wall

Only found in prokarotic cells (such as plants fungi and bacteria)
-surrounds the plasma membrane
-gives the cell its shape
-prevents bursting when turgid pressure is high
-helps anchor appendages like pili and flagella
-composed of cellulose microfibers which form a thick wall
-grows with the cell
-helps the cell maintain osmotic balance

plasma membrane

In both prokarotic and eukarotic cells
-encloses the interior of the cell
-regulates the flow of material in and out of the cell


In both
-carries out functions for all growth, metabolism and replication
-composed of water, enzymes and nutrients, wastes and gasses
-gel-like matrix
-contains cells structures (such as ribosome)


In prokaryotic cells (70s) in eukarotic cells (80s)
-translates the genetic code from the DNA to make proteins (proteins are molecules that perform all the functions of cells and living organisms)
-they are random throughout the cytoplasm - unattached
-composed of 2 subunits


Only in prokaryotic cells
-not a membrane bound nucleus
-an area of the cytoplasm where the strands of DNA are found


Only found in prokaryotic cells
-small hairlike projections emerging from the outside cell surface
-assists in the cell attaching to other cells and surfaces


Only found in prokaryotic cells
-hairlike structures that allow the cell to move by beating in a propeller-like motion
-help bacterium move toward nutrients, away from toxic chemicals, ETC

the process of binary fission

1) The DNA of the mother cell si copied
2) Each circular DNA strand attaches to the plasma membrane
3) The cell elongates and causes the 2 duplicated chromosomes to separate
4) At this point, the plasma membrane pinches inward towards the middle of the cell
5) When it reaches the middle (cytokensis) the cell splits into 2 daughter cells.

Endoplasmic Reticulum

-an extensive network of channels that stretches from the nucleus to the plasma membrane
-function is to transport materials through the cell
-ROUGH ER - distinguished by the ribosomes attached to it
-SMOOTH ER- many functions such as production of membrane phospholipids, production of sex hormones, breaks down harmful substances, stores calcium ions, transports liquid based compounds, and aids liver cells in releasing glucose into the blood when needed


-single membrane bound organelle produced by the GOLGI APPARATUS that contain strong hydraulic enzymes which break down biological molecules
-contains up to 40 different enzymes
-breaks down worn out cell parts that are no longer functioning properly
-involved in breaking down materials brought into a cell VIA phagocytosis

Golgi Apparatus

-composed of many flattened sacs called cisternae, which are stacked on top of each other
-normally located between the ER and plasma membrane
-it collects, packages, modifies, and distributes materials throughout the cell
-found in high numbers in cells that produce and secrete substances


-very large, double membrane bound rod-shaped organelles found scattered in the cytoplasm and contain their own DNA
-other membrane is smooth
-inner membrane is highly folded into cristane which increases the surgace area for cellular respiration, which is the main function of the mitochondria
-found in high numbers in cells that have high energy needs (EX: muscle cells)
-known as the "power house" of the cell


-where DNA is housed
-has a double membrane that allows the DNA to remain separate from the rest of the cell and can carry out its functions without interference from the other parts of the cell
-nuclear membrane contains pores that allows for communication with the rest of the cell
-DNA is contained here in the form of chromosomes
-normally located in the center of the cell
-most cells have only 1 nucleus, but some have multiple nuclei, while others have none (EX: Red Blood Cells)
-if a nucleus is not present, that cell cannot reproduce
-most nuclei have a nucleolus, a dark area inside the nucleus where ribosomes are made

extracellular components

-structures that are outside the plasma membrane of cells (EX: Cell Wall in Prokaryotic Cells & Extracellular Matrix of Animal Cells)

extracellular matric

-composed of glycoprotein and collagen fibers
-those two things together form a fibres-like structure that anchors the matrix to the plasma membrane
-adds stretch to the plasma membrane
-allows cell to cell interaction
-allows adjacent cells to attach to one another

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