Terms in this set (90)
urban middle class. In Marxist thought, this was the property-owning class that oppresses the working class.
dimension of socialist thought that advocates revolution to eradicate capitalism and establish the universal triumph of the proletariat.
working class. In Marxist theory, this class must overthrow the capitalist upper or middle classes to achieve control of the means of production.
variety of ideologies that advocate social equality and justice and the community's collective control and management of economic institutions.
practice of propagating the Christian gospel by preaching, personal witnessing, and missionary work.
transformed by a growing spirit of evangelism.
involved in a popular rebellion led by dan Fodio. Islam had a major impact on Sudanic Africa.
encouraged a new practice of national leadership.
the first modern war in which military machine of the industrial era did major damage. The war served as a signal of growing volatility among European powers.
initiated by a poor schoolteacher.
War of the Triple Alliance
caused the losing side to become increasingly tied to foreign merchants, land speculators, and banks.
sparked in part by a religious affront to devoted believers. It caused immense violence but lacked any central direction.
the campaigns of colonial empire building that several European powers plus Japan and the United States undertook in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries against other societies, especially in Africa and Southeast Asia.
economic process in which a state or region loses at least part of the capacity it previously had to manufacture goods, especially owing to foreign competition or intervention.
laborer, usually on a farm or plantation, who works under obligation to repay a loan.
type of colonial relationship in which a foreign power takes control of the top levels of government in the colonized territory but permits it to retain formal, if largely fictional sovereignty.
intellectual movement, founded on misleading and phony applications of science that sought to categorize the mental capacity of human groups based on outward physical characteristics.
The most popular food of tropical environments were the "drug foods"
sugar, tea, coffee, tobacco, and opium.
Many entrepreneurs and governments created big plantations through purchasing or confiscating ___
a set of conditions developed by American President Woodrow Wilson that offered goals for a new world order, among which were the commitment of sovereign states to collective security and the rights of ethnically based national communities to political self-determination.
a conflict in which the opposing states mobilize their civilian populations and all available resources to achieve victory. This was a policy intended to damage or destroy both the enemy's military forces and its economic infrastructure and social fabric.
the idea put forth during and after World War I that a society sharing common language, history, and cultural traditions should have the right to decided its own political future and govern its own affairs.
the act of making amends or giving satisfaction for an injustice or injury. It was a payment of compensation by a defeated state for presumed damages inflicted on another state as a result of war between them.
system of technology and organization which aims both to produce goods at minimal cost through standardization and mass production and to pay workers at wage rates that allow them to consume the products they make.
internal combustion engine
the perfection of the light-weight ___ helped make mechanical flight possible.
After the achievement of air travel by the Wright brothers, it took about ___ years for air travel across the English Channel to become possible.
mean a system of technology and organization, named after Henry Ford, which aims both to produce goods at minimal cost through standardization and mass production and to pay wage workers rates that allow them to consume the products they make.
innovated a new use of the assembly line to produce automobiles.
contained diverse ethno-linguistic groups that in many cases formed their own nationalist movements.
a member of the Triple Entente.
fielded Europe's largest land army after Russia and had the highest production in key industries like coal and steel.
major economic depression of 1873
affected Europe by encouraging states to seek new places for capital investment, like tropical Africa.
Severe drought followed by famine
the type of environmental conditions that large areas of Asia, Africa, and Latin America suffered on three separate occasions in the late 1800s.
Enhancing national prestige
the primary motivation of both the United States and Germany for seizing territories abroad.
resulted in migrations to the United States from Russia and Eastern Europe.
transportation of criminals.
The settling of Australia began with ___
According to the ___ the proletariat must rise up to take possession of the economic system that exploits them.
the religious ideology of Saudi Arabia.
the ___ of the age of steam were located in areas close to convenient to deposits of coal.
opened to the world and to modern ways in 1853 because of the arrival of Perry.
world war I
in ___, the failure of the combatants to achieve a quick victory on the Western Front through strategies such as the Schlieffen Plan resulted in battle lines on the Western Front not changing significantly, both sides building defenses with trenches and barbed wire, and soldiers suffering from disease in the unhealthy conditions on the front lines.
Before modernization, Japan was a society dominated by classes such as the ___
In 1869, travel from Europe to Asia was shortened by the ___
germany and italy
In 1870-71, Europe experienced the unification ___
Throughout the rush for colonies in 19th century Africa, ___ remained independent
The ___ was the largest frontier of permanent European migration in 1800.
The ___ to Australia were primarily condemned criminals.
the emancipation of Russian serfs in 1861
eventually propelled hundreds of thousands of immigrants into Siberia.
The great majority of ___ were to areas where commercial export agriculture was expanding.
Nationalism and liberalism
two ideologies that held great appeal for capitalists, governing elites, and affluent urbanites in the nineteenth century.
___ in the political spectrum contended that a strict social hierarchy and a state-sanctioned church should be preserved.
___ argued that in the modern era, industrial capitalists had replaced slave owners and estate lords as the dominant class.
The Declaration of Sentiments
demanded the social change of female enfranchisement.
Franz-Joseph agreed to a power-sharing arrangement that retained him as head-of-state but granted both Austria and Hungary their own parliament. This arrangement is called the ____
age of the caudillos
Across Latin America, the period from 1830 to 1860 was the ___
championed modern social issues of slave abolition, education, and poor relief but not universal suffrage.
The War of the Triple Alliance (1864 - 1870)
took place on the continent of South America.
field telegraphs, photography, and massive artillery barrages.
During the Crimean War, new technologies were used such as ___
dissolving of the East India Company, the assumption of direct control of the Indian colony by the British government, and greater exploitation of India's resources.
Results of the Indian Rebellion
The American Civil War
ultimately shifted the balance of power in the United States in favor of the federal government.
Western France, most of Spain, southern Italy, and Poland
built few factories or rail lines because of few cities, low levels of investment capital, and strong land-owning elites.
Perry's flotilla arriving in Edo harbor
the action that convinced the Japanese elite to open several ports to trade with the United States.
the Indian industry that suffered deindustrialization in the mid-nineteenth century as a result of British imperial policies.
in the first half of the nineteenth century feared that industrialization could sputter out due to overproduction.
One glaring inequity between "have" and "have not" societies in the industrializing world of the nineteenth century was ____
In Britain, one informal standard of middle-class membership involved ___
Many modern-minded men of the Ottoman Empire adopted European dress, but instead of a top hat they wore a ___.
With the discovery of the laws of thermodynamics, ___ emerged as a distinct modern discipline.
arranged the sixty-three known elements into the periodic table.
a coal-rich region that the French lost to the Germans in the Franco-Prussian War.
___ seized territories abroad to enhance national prestige.
the medication that became available in the 1840s that offered significant defense against malaria.
___ invent moral justifications for violently seizing other peoples' land because their view of themselves as modern and civilized.
the theory that contends that dependent elements of society occupy their inferior position because they had exhibited less biological fitness.
the only large African polity to keep its independence by defeating a European invader on the field of battle.
The system of technology and organization that included the practice of hiring workers to perform the same specialized task over and over again was first utilized by and is most associated with ___
ethiopia and liberia
of the thirty-nine territories superimposed on africa, which one's were not NOT european dependencies
Kaiser Wilhelm II
competed with France for diplomatic influence in Morocco, a sovereign monarchy.
The Schlieffen Plan
was the name of the 1905 German plan to overpower France by a rapid and massive assault across Belgium.
diverse ethnolinguistic groups.
The political and social profiles of Austria-Hungary, Russia, and the Ottoman Empire were all similar in that each had ___
static warfare with entrenched infantry.
Fighting on the Western Front was characterized by ___
Fighting on the Eastern Front differ from that of the Western Front because troops on the Eastern Front were more ___.
The principal actors in World War I were primarily in ___.
The United States finally entered the fighting in Europe because of ___ on neutral American shipping.
World War I
___ was different from any earlier war because entire societies mobilized to fight the war.
Laws and deep-rooted traditions prevented women from volunteering for regular military in every country except ___
the inspiration for the first battlefield tank.
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
In the ___, Russia ceded to Germany all the old empire's western borderlands.
World War I
___ ended with the Germans' retreat after meeting a wall of fresh American troops.
League of Nations.
The first formal organization of sovereign states dedicated to worldwide collective security through open negotiations was known as the ___
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