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supply the body with oxygen and dispose carbon dioxide

What is the function of the respiratory system


the process of using oxygen to make energy 02-ATP

pulmonary ventilation

air is moved in and out of the lungs so that the gases in the air sacs of the lungs are continuously replaced


movement of moving gases in and out of the air sacs

external respiration

oxygen in the airs sacs diffuses into the blood; CO2 in blood diffuses into the air sacs

transport of respiratory gases

oxygen and carbon dioxide is transported between the lungs and the cells of the body

internal respiration

gas is exchanged between the blood and the tissue cells at the systemic capillaries

ventilation, gas exchange of lungs, transport of gasses, gas excange of tissues, cellular respiration

what are the processes of respiration

cellular respiration

the process that converts glucose to cellular energy (ATP)

nose, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, aveoli

what are the organs of the respiratory system

conducting zone

zone that includes the respiratory passageways that carry air to the sites of gas exchange

respiratory zone

zone that is the actual site of gas exchange in the lungs


provides and airway for respiration; moistens and warms entering air; filters inhaled air to cleanse it of foreign particles; serves as a resonating chamber for speech, and houses the olfactory (smell) receptors

nasal cavity

lies in and posterior to the external nose; during breathing air enters this cavity by passing through the external nares (nostrils); divided into right and left halves

nasal septum, posterior nasal apertures

right and left halves of the nasal cavity

hard palate

anterior part of the palate that contains the horizontal process of the palatine bones and palatine process of the maxillary bone

roof is ethnoid and sphenoid bones and floor is the palate

what are the bony boundaries of the nasal cavity

soft palate

posterior part of the palate


part of the nasal cavity that lies just superior to the nostrils withing the flared wings of the external nose; lined with skin containing sebaceous and sweat glands and numerous hair follicles

olfactory mucosa and respiratory mucosa

two type of mucous membrane found in nasal cavity

olfactory mucosa

small patch of mucous membrane near the roof of the nasal cavity which houses the receptors for smell

respiratory mucosa

type of mucous membrane that lines the vast majority of the nasal cavity

pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium

what kind of tissue is the respiratory mucosa

superior, middle, inferior conchae

three mucosa-covered, scroll-like structures or the ethmoid bone

filter, heat, and moisten air

functions of the conchae and nasal mucosa

paranasal sinuses

air-filled cavities

frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, and maxillary bones

where are the four paranasal sinuses found


funnel-shaped passageway that connects the nasal cavity and mouth superiorly to the larynx and esophagus inferiorly; descends from the base of the skull to the level of the sixth cervical vertebra and serves as a common passageway for both food and air; commonly called the throat

the internal nares to the bottom of the larynx

where does the pharynx extend from

nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx

three divisions of the pharynx


division of the pharynx that lies directly posterior to the nasal cavity, inferior to the sphenoid bone and superior to the level of the soft palate; serves only as an air passageway

pharyngeal tonsil

adenoids, a lymphoid organ that destroys pathogens entering the nasopharynx in the air;

high on the posterior nasopharyngeal wall

where is the pharyngeal tonsil located

tubal tonsil

a ridge of pharyngeal mucosa posterior to lateral wall of the nasopharynxl; provides the middle ear some protection against infections that may spread from the pharynx


part of the soft palate that along with the soft palate closes off the nasopharynx and prevents food from entering the nasal cavity


division of the pharynx that lies posterior to the oral cavity


oropharynx archlike entranceway, directly behind the mouth

form the soft palate to the epiglottis cartilage

where does the oropharynx extend from

from the epiglottis cartilage continuous with the esophagus and the larynx

where does the laryngeopharynx extend form

palatine and lingual

two kinds of tonsils embedded in the mucosa of the oropharynx

lateral walls of the fauces

where do the paired palatine tonsils lie

the posterior surface of the tongue

where does the lingual tonsil cover


division of the pharynx that serves as a common passageway for food and air


voice box; superiorly, it attaches to the hyoid bone and opens into the laryngopharynx; inferiorly, it is continuous with the trachea

from the level of the fourth to the sixth cervical vertebra

where does the larynx extend

producing vocalizations, providing an open airway, route air and food into the proper channels

name three functions of the larynx

thyroid cartilage

cartilage of the larynx that is large, shield-shaped and formed by two cartilage plates resembling an upright open book with the books spine lying in the anterior midline of the neck

laryngeal prominence

ridgelike spine lying in the anterior midline of the neck; adams apple

cricoid cartilage

cartilage of the larynx inferior to the thyroid cartilage and is the only laryngeal cartilage that forms a complete ring; it is shaped like a signet ring, wide posteriorly and narrow anteriorly, and is perched on top of the trachea

arytenoid, corniculate, and cuneiform cartilages

three pairs of small cartilages of the larynx that lie just superior to the cricoid cartilage in the posterior part of the larynx


pyramid-shaped cartilage which anchor the vocal cords


leaf-shaped cartilage of the larynx composed of elastic cartilage; its stalk attaches anteriorly to the internal aspect of the angle of the thyroid cartilage and then projects superoposteriorly and attaches to the tongue


what cartilage of the larynx keeps food out of the lower respiratory tubes by covering and sealing the laryngeal inlet during swallowing

vocal folds or true vocal cords

paired vocal ligaments that run anteriorly fromt he arytenoid cartilages to the thryroid cartilage and is composed largely of elastic fibers

rima glottidis

a medial opening between the vocal folds through which air passes


vocal folds and the rima glottidis compose this

vestibular folds or false vocal cords

pair of horizontal mucosal folds that lies directly superior to the vocal folds and play no part in sound production but enhances high-frequency sounds


flexible windpipe; descends from the larynx through the neck and into the mediastinum; it ends dividing into the two main bronchi


has 16-20 C-shaped rings of hyaline cartilage on its wall joined to one another by intervening membranes of fibroelastic connective tissue

main bronchi or primary bronchi

the largest conduits in the bronchial tree; branches of the trachea in the mediastinum

bronchial tree

a system of respiratory passages that branches extensively within the lungs

right main bronchus

which bronchus is wider, shorter, and more vertical

secondary or lobar bronchi

the main bronchi divide into this as they approach and enter the lungs

three on the right and two on the left

how many secondary bronchi supplies one lung lobe

tertiary or segmental bronchi

secondary bronchi branch into this


how many orders of air tubes in the lungs


bronchi tubes smaller than 1mm in diameter

terminal bronchioles

smallest bronchioles that are less than 0.5 mm in diameter


structures that contain air-exchange chambers; found in the respiratory zone

respiratory bronchioles

the first respiratory-zone structures, which branch form the terminal bronchioles of the conduction zone; recognized by the scattered alveoli protruding from their walls

alveolar ducts

respiratory bronchioles lead into these straight ducts whose walls consist almost entirely of alveoli

alveolar sacs

alveolar ducts lead into these terminal clusters of alveoli


the opening from an alveolar duct into an alveolar sac


a flattened sac whose walls consist of a serous membrane

parietal pleura

outer layer of the pleura sac

visceral pleura

inner layer, directly on lung , of the pleura

pleural cavity

space between the parietal and visceral pleurae


a detergent-like substance that coats the internal alveolar surfaces

pseudostratified ciliated columnar

what kind of epithelial is found in the trachea

elastic fibers and cartilagenous rings

what kind of connective tissue (fibers and cartilage) is found in the trachea

smooth and trachealis muscle

what kind of muscles are found in the trachea

pseudostratified ciliated columnar

what kind of epithelial is found in the bronchi

elastic fibers and cartilagenous plates

what kind of connective tissue (fibers and cartilage) is found in the bronchi

smooth muscle in the walls of bronchi

what kind of muscles is found in the bronchi

simple cuboidal

what kind of epithelial is found in the bronchioles

elastic fibers, no cartilage

what kind of connective tissue (fibers and cartilage) is found in the bronchioles

smooth muscle

what kind of muscle is found in the bronchioles

simple cuboidal

what kind of epithelial is found in the terminal bronchioles

elastic fibers

what kind of connective tissue (fibers and cartilage) is found in the terminal bronchioles

no muscles

what kind of muscles is found in the terminal bronchioles

simple squamous

what kind of epithelial is found in the alveoli

elastic fibers

what kind of connective tissue (fibers and cartilage) is found in the alveoli

no muscle

what kind of muscle is found in the alveoli


rounded, superior tip of the lung


concave inferior surface of the lung that rests on the diaphragm


an indentation on the medial surface of each lung through which blood vessels, bronchi, lymphatic vessels, and nerves enter and exit


structures that attache the lung to the mediastinum

smaller and has a cardiac notch

what is different about the left lung

cardiac notch

a deviation in the left lungs anterior border that accommodates the heart


how many lobes does the left lung have

superior and inferior

name the lobes of the left lung

oblique fissure

what divides the two lobes of the left lung


how many lobes does the right lung have

superior, middle, inferior

name the lobes of the right lung

oblique and horizontal fissure

what divides the lobes of the right lung


the smallest subdivision of the lung that can be seen by the naked eye


a framework of connective tissue containing many elastic fibers that is the balance of lung tissue

pulmonary arteries

what delivers oxygen-poor blood to the lungs for oxygenation

pulmonary veins

what carries oxygenated blood from the alveoli of the lungs to the heart


where do pulmonary arteries lie in the lung


where do the pulmonary veins lie in the lung

sympathetic, parasympathetic, and visceral sensory fibers through the pulmonary plexus

what innerverates the lungs


what does the parasympathetic fibers do to the air tubes


what does the sympathetic fibers do to the air tubes

inspiration (inhalation), expiration (exhalation)

what are the two phases of breathing

when gases exit the lungs

what is expiration (exhalation)

when air flows into the lungs

what is inspiration (inhalation)

diaphragm and intercostal muscles

what are the muscles of normal quiet inspiration

diaphragm, intercostal muscles, scalenes, sternocleidomastoid, and the pectoralis minor

what are the muscles used in deep inspiration

passive expiration

a process of expiration when the volumes of the thorax and lungs decrease simultaneously, which increases the pressure withing the lungs and pushes the air out

active expiration

process of expiration when the the muscles in the abdominal wall increase the intra-abdominal pressure, forcing the diaphragm superiorly and sharply depress the rib cage, decreasing thoracic volume

laryngotracheal bud

a tubular outpocketing off the paharangeal foregut where the lower respiratory organs develop from


where does the lining epithelium (and glands) of the trachea, bronchial tree, and alveoli

bronchial asthma

type of allergic inflammation in people who are hypersensitive to irritants in the air or to stress


disease characterized by a permanent enlargement of the alveoli caused by a deterioration of the alveolar walls

chronic bronchitis

inhaled irritants lead to a prolonged secretion of excess mucus by the mucosa of the lower respiratory passages, and to inflammation and fibrosis of this mucosa

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