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126 terms

Week 11 Respiratory System

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supply the body with oxygen and dispose carbon dioxide
What is the function of the respiratory system
respiration
the process of using oxygen to make energy 02-ATP
pulmonary ventilation
air is moved in and out of the lungs so that the gases in the air sacs of the lungs are continuously replaced
ventilation
movement of moving gases in and out of the air sacs
external respiration
oxygen in the airs sacs diffuses into the blood; CO2 in blood diffuses into the air sacs
transport of respiratory gases
oxygen and carbon dioxide is transported between the lungs and the cells of the body
internal respiration
gas is exchanged between the blood and the tissue cells at the systemic capillaries
ventilation, gas exchange of lungs, transport of gasses, gas excange of tissues, cellular respiration
what are the processes of respiration
cellular respiration
the process that converts glucose to cellular energy (ATP)
nose, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, aveoli
what are the organs of the respiratory system
conducting zone
zone that includes the respiratory passageways that carry air to the sites of gas exchange
respiratory zone
zone that is the actual site of gas exchange in the lungs
nose
provides and airway for respiration; moistens and warms entering air; filters inhaled air to cleanse it of foreign particles; serves as a resonating chamber for speech, and houses the olfactory (smell) receptors
nasal cavity
lies in and posterior to the external nose; during breathing air enters this cavity by passing through the external nares (nostrils); divided into right and left halves
nasal septum, posterior nasal apertures
right and left halves of the nasal cavity
hard palate
anterior part of the palate that contains the horizontal process of the palatine bones and palatine process of the maxillary bone
roof is ethnoid and sphenoid bones and floor is the palate
what are the bony boundaries of the nasal cavity
soft palate
posterior part of the palate
vestibule
part of the nasal cavity that lies just superior to the nostrils withing the flared wings of the external nose; lined with skin containing sebaceous and sweat glands and numerous hair follicles
olfactory mucosa and respiratory mucosa
two type of mucous membrane found in nasal cavity
olfactory mucosa
small patch of mucous membrane near the roof of the nasal cavity which houses the receptors for smell
respiratory mucosa
type of mucous membrane that lines the vast majority of the nasal cavity
pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
what kind of tissue is the respiratory mucosa
superior, middle, inferior conchae
three mucosa-covered, scroll-like structures or the ethmoid bone
filter, heat, and moisten air
functions of the conchae and nasal mucosa
paranasal sinuses
air-filled cavities
frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, and maxillary bones
where are the four paranasal sinuses found
pharynx
funnel-shaped passageway that connects the nasal cavity and mouth superiorly to the larynx and esophagus inferiorly; descends from the base of the skull to the level of the sixth cervical vertebra and serves as a common passageway for both food and air; commonly called the throat
the internal nares to the bottom of the larynx
where does the pharynx extend from
nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx
three divisions of the pharynx
nasopharynx
division of the pharynx that lies directly posterior to the nasal cavity, inferior to the sphenoid bone and superior to the level of the soft palate; serves only as an air passageway
pharyngeal tonsil
adenoids, a lymphoid organ that destroys pathogens entering the nasopharynx in the air;
high on the posterior nasopharyngeal wall
where is the pharyngeal tonsil located
tubal tonsil
a ridge of pharyngeal mucosa posterior to lateral wall of the nasopharynxl; provides the middle ear some protection against infections that may spread from the pharynx
uvula
part of the soft palate that along with the soft palate closes off the nasopharynx and prevents food from entering the nasal cavity
oropharynx
division of the pharynx that lies posterior to the oral cavity
fauces
oropharynx archlike entranceway, directly behind the mouth
form the soft palate to the epiglottis cartilage
where does the oropharynx extend from
from the epiglottis cartilage continuous with the esophagus and the larynx
where does the laryngeopharynx extend form
palatine and lingual
two kinds of tonsils embedded in the mucosa of the oropharynx
lateral walls of the fauces
where do the paired palatine tonsils lie
the posterior surface of the tongue
where does the lingual tonsil cover
laryngopharynx
division of the pharynx that serves as a common passageway for food and air
larynx
voice box; superiorly, it attaches to the hyoid bone and opens into the laryngopharynx; inferiorly, it is continuous with the trachea
from the level of the fourth to the sixth cervical vertebra
where does the larynx extend
producing vocalizations, providing an open airway, route air and food into the proper channels
name three functions of the larynx
thyroid cartilage
cartilage of the larynx that is large, shield-shaped and formed by two cartilage plates resembling an upright open book with the books spine lying in the anterior midline of the neck
laryngeal prominence
ridgelike spine lying in the anterior midline of the neck; adams apple
cricoid cartilage
cartilage of the larynx inferior to the thyroid cartilage and is the only laryngeal cartilage that forms a complete ring; it is shaped like a signet ring, wide posteriorly and narrow anteriorly, and is perched on top of the trachea
arytenoid, corniculate, and cuneiform cartilages
three pairs of small cartilages of the larynx that lie just superior to the cricoid cartilage in the posterior part of the larynx
arytenoids
pyramid-shaped cartilage which anchor the vocal cords
epiglottis
leaf-shaped cartilage of the larynx composed of elastic cartilage; its stalk attaches anteriorly to the internal aspect of the angle of the thyroid cartilage and then projects superoposteriorly and attaches to the tongue
epiglottis
what cartilage of the larynx keeps food out of the lower respiratory tubes by covering and sealing the laryngeal inlet during swallowing
vocal folds or true vocal cords
paired vocal ligaments that run anteriorly fromt he arytenoid cartilages to the thryroid cartilage and is composed largely of elastic fibers
rima glottidis
a medial opening between the vocal folds through which air passes
glottis
vocal folds and the rima glottidis compose this
vestibular folds or false vocal cords
pair of horizontal mucosal folds that lies directly superior to the vocal folds and play no part in sound production but enhances high-frequency sounds
trachea
flexible windpipe; descends from the larynx through the neck and into the mediastinum; it ends dividing into the two main bronchi
trachea
has 16-20 C-shaped rings of hyaline cartilage on its wall joined to one another by intervening membranes of fibroelastic connective tissue
main bronchi or primary bronchi
the largest conduits in the bronchial tree; branches of the trachea in the mediastinum
bronchial tree
a system of respiratory passages that branches extensively within the lungs
right main bronchus
which bronchus is wider, shorter, and more vertical
secondary or lobar bronchi
the main bronchi divide into this as they approach and enter the lungs
three on the right and two on the left
how many secondary bronchi supplies one lung lobe
tertiary or segmental bronchi
secondary bronchi branch into this
23
how many orders of air tubes in the lungs
bronchioles
bronchi tubes smaller than 1mm in diameter
terminal bronchioles
smallest bronchioles that are less than 0.5 mm in diameter
alveoli
structures that contain air-exchange chambers; found in the respiratory zone
respiratory bronchioles
the first respiratory-zone structures, which branch form the terminal bronchioles of the conduction zone; recognized by the scattered alveoli protruding from their walls
alveolar ducts
respiratory bronchioles lead into these straight ducts whose walls consist almost entirely of alveoli
alveolar sacs
alveolar ducts lead into these terminal clusters of alveoli
atrium
the opening from an alveolar duct into an alveolar sac
pleura
a flattened sac whose walls consist of a serous membrane
parietal pleura
outer layer of the pleura sac
visceral pleura
inner layer, directly on lung , of the pleura
pleural cavity
space between the parietal and visceral pleurae
surfactant
a detergent-like substance that coats the internal alveolar surfaces
pseudostratified ciliated columnar
what kind of epithelial is found in the trachea
elastic fibers and cartilagenous rings
what kind of connective tissue (fibers and cartilage) is found in the trachea
smooth and trachealis muscle
what kind of muscles are found in the trachea
pseudostratified ciliated columnar
what kind of epithelial is found in the bronchi
elastic fibers and cartilagenous plates
what kind of connective tissue (fibers and cartilage) is found in the bronchi
smooth muscle in the walls of bronchi
what kind of muscles is found in the bronchi
simple cuboidal
what kind of epithelial is found in the bronchioles
elastic fibers, no cartilage
what kind of connective tissue (fibers and cartilage) is found in the bronchioles
smooth muscle
what kind of muscle is found in the bronchioles
simple cuboidal
what kind of epithelial is found in the terminal bronchioles
elastic fibers
what kind of connective tissue (fibers and cartilage) is found in the terminal bronchioles
no muscles
what kind of muscles is found in the terminal bronchioles
simple squamous
what kind of epithelial is found in the alveoli
elastic fibers
what kind of connective tissue (fibers and cartilage) is found in the alveoli
no muscle
what kind of muscle is found in the alveoli
apex
rounded, superior tip of the lung
base
concave inferior surface of the lung that rests on the diaphragm
hilum
an indentation on the medial surface of each lung through which blood vessels, bronchi, lymphatic vessels, and nerves enter and exit
root
structures that attache the lung to the mediastinum
smaller and has a cardiac notch
what is different about the left lung
cardiac notch
a deviation in the left lungs anterior border that accommodates the heart
two
how many lobes does the left lung have
superior and inferior
name the lobes of the left lung
oblique fissure
what divides the two lobes of the left lung
three
how many lobes does the right lung have
superior, middle, inferior
name the lobes of the right lung
oblique and horizontal fissure
what divides the lobes of the right lung
lobule
the smallest subdivision of the lung that can be seen by the naked eye
stroma
a framework of connective tissue containing many elastic fibers that is the balance of lung tissue
pulmonary arteries
what delivers oxygen-poor blood to the lungs for oxygenation
pulmonary veins
what carries oxygenated blood from the alveoli of the lungs to the heart
posterior
where do pulmonary arteries lie in the lung
anterior
where do the pulmonary veins lie in the lung
sympathetic, parasympathetic, and visceral sensory fibers through the pulmonary plexus
what innerverates the lungs
constrict
what does the parasympathetic fibers do to the air tubes
dilate
what does the sympathetic fibers do to the air tubes
inspiration (inhalation), expiration (exhalation)
what are the two phases of breathing
when gases exit the lungs
what is expiration (exhalation)
when air flows into the lungs
what is inspiration (inhalation)
diaphragm and intercostal muscles
what are the muscles of normal quiet inspiration
diaphragm, intercostal muscles, scalenes, sternocleidomastoid, and the pectoralis minor
what are the muscles used in deep inspiration
passive expiration
a process of expiration when the volumes of the thorax and lungs decrease simultaneously, which increases the pressure withing the lungs and pushes the air out
active expiration
process of expiration when the the muscles in the abdominal wall increase the intra-abdominal pressure, forcing the diaphragm superiorly and sharply depress the rib cage, decreasing thoracic volume
laryngotracheal bud
a tubular outpocketing off the paharangeal foregut where the lower respiratory organs develop from
endoderm
where does the lining epithelium (and glands) of the trachea, bronchial tree, and alveoli
bronchial asthma
type of allergic inflammation in people who are hypersensitive to irritants in the air or to stress
emphysema
disease characterized by a permanent enlargement of the alveoli caused by a deterioration of the alveolar walls
chronic bronchitis
inhaled irritants lead to a prolonged secretion of excess mucus by the mucosa of the lower respiratory passages, and to inflammation and fibrosis of this mucosa