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Biology Honors Final
Terms in this set (107)
What do we use to cut DNA?
Where are restriction enzymes found?
Cut specific sequence of DNA
What is the purpose of restriction enzymes in bacteria?
No, because different enzymes cut different sequences
Do all restriction enzymes cut DNA at the same recognition site?
Once a restriction enzyme make its cut, what does it leave behind?
PCR, Gel Electrophoresis, Genetic Engineering
In which of the following processes do we use restriction enzymes?
Polymerase Chain Reaction
What does PCR stand for?
Use restriction enzymes to cut DNA into fragments
How do we get the DNA fragments needed to begin the process?
DNA fragments, DNA polymerase, free nucleotides, primers
What are the initial ingredients needed to start PCR?
to copy DNA to run RFLP (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism
Why do we use PCR?
How many PCR cycles would it take to get at least 80,000 copies of the DNA fragment?
method for separating large molecules by putting them in the presence of an electric field
What is gel electrophoresis?
DNA, RNA, proteins
What kinds of molecules are separated in gel electrophoresis?
Electric charge; molecules are negatively charged and electricity is positively charged
What causes the molecules to move in the gel?
Size, shape, charge
What characteristics of the molecules cause them to migrate to different locations on the gel?
After, because the radioactive particles are used for visualization
Are radioactive probes used before or after we "run the gel" and separate the bands?
Extract plasmid from bacterium
What is the first thing we do in genetic engineering?
What is the most common cloning vector?
Returned to bacterium
What is done with the plasmid once it is genetically engineered?
What does the bacterium do with the plasmid when it asexually reproduces?
Habitat destruction, degradation, and fragmentation
H in HIPPCO
I in HIPPCO
Population growth/ Increased use of resources
First P in HIPPCO
Second P in HIPPCO
C in HIPPCO
Over fishing, over hunting
O in HIPPCO
Many species living together in one habitat is called?
Organism, its habitat, and its role
Niche includes what 3 things?
The line at which the environment cannot sustain a larger population is called?
What is the shape of an exponential growth curve?
Population size and area
To calculate population density you need to know what 2 factors?
Random, uniform, and clumped
What are the types of population dispersion?
Populations that grow slowly and end up with a population size near the carrying capacity are what kind of strategists?
Dependent: Amount of resources
Name one density-dependent factor and one density-independent factor?
Benefits both species?
One species benefits and the other is harmed?
One species benefits and the other is neither benefited nor harmed?
The organisms that capture the sun's energy are called?
Organisms that eat other organisms for energy are called?
The highest level of consumer is?
How much energy flows from one trophic level to the next highest trophic level?
Water evaporating from the leaves of trees is called?
The burning of fossil fuels is a part of which cycle?
1 Nitrogen and 3 Hydrogen
Ammonia is made up of what?
In which cycle do bacteria play a major role?
Imprints and Casts
What are the two types of fossils?
Body parts that have reduced in size and appear to serve a reduced function or no function at all
What are vestigial structures?
Organisms developed the same way as their ancestors
How does embryonic development support the theory of evolution?
Related organisms have the same DNA sequence
How does comparing DNA sequences support the theory of evolution?
If body structures are similar, we can assume the organisms are related
How does the fossil record support the theory of evolution?
Organism with most favorable traits
Who wins the "competition"?
The population will evolve
Over time, through the generations, what will happen to a population?
Organisms have the potential to have more offspring than the environment can support
What is meant by reproductive potential?
Morphological, Physiological, and Behavioral
What are the three types of variation?
Competition exists because organisms fight for the same resources
Why does competition exist?
Intraspecific: individuals of the same population compete for resources
Interspecific: 2 species must compete for resources
What are the two types of competition?
2 species fighting for the same resource cannot coexist
What is the competitive exclusion principle?
Natural selection is what kind of process?
Stabilizing, Directional, Disruptive, and Sexual Selection
What are the 4 types of natural selection?
Provide control group
What is the purpose behind the work of Hardy-Weinberg?
1) Large population
2) Isolated population
3) No net change
4) Random Mating
5) All genotypes equal in reproductive success
Name the five conditions necessary for a population to be in H-W equilibrium.
P: frequency of dominant allele
q: frequency of recessive allele
p^2: genotype frequency of homozygous dominant
2pq: genotype frequency of heterozygous
q^2: genotype frequency of homozygous recessive
Name the two equations used to determine H-W equilibrium. Tell me what each factor represents.
Change in gene frequency due to immigration or emmigration
Define gene flow.
allele frequencies in population change as a result of random, or chance, events
Define genetic drift.
Geographic Isolation: Physical isolation of population
Reproductive Isolation: result of barriers to successful reproduction between two groups in the same population
List and describe the two types of isolation.
Morphological Concept: external characteristics used to classify. Easy to use, but doesn't allow variation inside of a species
Biological concept: species can successfully interbreed, but not with other groups. Useful for living organisms, but useless for extinct species and organisms that reproduce asexually
List and describe the two concepts of species.
Gradualism: speciation requires millions of years and is caused by evolution changes that occur gradually
Punctuated Equilibrium: speciation occurs suddenly by rapid shifts in
Name the two rates of speciation.
1) Extract DNA
2) Cut plasmid using restriction enzymes, leaving sticky ends
3) Donor gene spliced into plasmid, resulting in recombinant DNA
4) place plasmid back into bacterium, resulting in a transgenic organism
5) clone bacterium
What are the steps for genetic engineering?
Coevolution: change in one or more species in close association with each other
Convergent Evolution: two organisms that appear to be very similar but are not at all closely related
Divergent Evolution: two or more related populations or species become more and more dissimilar
Name and describe the three patterns of evolution.
Prosimians, Monkeys, Apes, and Hominids
Name the four categories of primates.
Hominids: homo sapiens
Give one example of each of the four categories of primates.
2) Opposable Thumb
3) Big Toe
4) Sensitive Padded Fingertips
6) Eyes Forward (Binocular View)
7) Depth Perception
Name the seven characteristics of primates.
Apes and Hominids
Which primates use tools?
Monkeys, Apes, and Hominids
Which primates have color vision?
Which primates have a claw?
What is the trend regarding hominid height?
Skull becomes larger
What is the trend regarding skull form in hominids?
Which hominid had the largest brain?
Europe, West Africa
Where are homo neanderthalensis from?
Yes; the time period of homo habilis and homo erectus overlap
Did any of the hominids co-exist? Give an example.
Australopithecus, Homo Habilis, Homo Erectus, Neanderthal, Cro Magnon, and Homo Sapien
List the order of the hominids.
Binocular vision and opposable thumb
List characteristics of prosimians.
Binocular vision, opposable thumb, and color vision
List characteristics of monkeys.
Binocular vision, opposable thumb, color vision, no tail, and uses tools
List the characteristics of apes.
Binocular vision, opposable thumb, color vision, no tail, uses tools, and walks upright
List the characteristics of hominids.
Cure diseases, improve crops, and treat genetic disorders
What are the three uses of genetic engineering?
1) Water and minerals are in the soil
2) Root hairs take in the water from the soil
3) Water moves up the stem by adhesion and cohesion in the xylem
4) Water reaches the leaves and transpirates
Describe the movement of water up a plant.
Ability of water to stick to other things
Ability of water to stick to itself
2) Upper epidermis
4) Spongy layer
5) Lower epidermis
Name the layers of the leaf from top to bottom.
What is a stack of thylakoids called?
1) Reproductive Potentail
4) Natural Selection
7) New species
What are the 7 steps to speciation?
The population is evolving and is not in the H-W equilibrium
If a population exhibits p^2+2pq+q^2 does not equal 1, what is happening?
1) light excites electrons (e-) in Chlorophyll a of Photosystem II
2) e- moves to Primary Electron Acceptor
3) e- is transferred on e- Transport Chain and H+ is pumped in. H+ goes to ATP Synthase
4) light excites e- in Chlorophyll a in Photosystem I. e- moves to another Primary e- Accepter. Then replaced by e- from Photosystem II
5) e- from Photosystem I is transferred along another e- Transport Chain. e- combines with NADP and H+ to form NADPH.
6) H+ that was pumped in goes through ATP Synthase to combine ADP and P to form ATP. Both ATP and NADPH go to the Calvin Cycle
What are the steps for light reactions?
In the thylakoid membrane
Where do light reactions take place?
1) CO2 combines with 5 carbohydrate (RuBP) to form 6 carbohydrate molecule that instantly splits into 2 3 carbohydrate molecules (PGA)
2) The ATP and NADPH from the light reactions are used to change the structure of PGA to G3P. Some G3P leave the Calvin Cycle and are used to make organic compunds (glucose).
3) The rest of the G3P are converted back to RuBP to keep the cycle going with the help of ATP
What are the steps of the Calvin Cycle?
In the stroma
Where does the Calvin Cycle occur?
Plants absorb light through the use of pigments found in the chloroplasts of cells
How do plants get light?
Absorb specific wavelengths (color) of light and reflect others
What do pigments do?
The primary pigment found in chloroplasts. Absorbs blue and red, and reflects yellow and green
What is chlorophyll and which colors does it absorb and reflect?
Absorb multiple wavelengths and reflect yellow and orange in the fall
What do carotenoids do?
What color does xanthophyll reflect?
1) Sunlight goes to the Light Reactions and the Calvin Cycle
2) From both Light Reactions and the Calvin Cycle, glucose is made
3) Glucose goes through Glycolysis, which takes place in the cytosol of cells. Glucose is either made into Pyruvic Acid
4a) Without oxygen, the Pyruvic Acid is made into Lactic Acid or Alcohol through Fermentation and makes 2 ATP (Anaerobic Respiration)
4b) With oxygen, the Pyruvic Acid is converted into Acetoyl CoA and is sent to the Krebs Cycle in the mitochondria, and then to the Electron Transport Chain (Aerobic Respiration) make 36 ATP
What are the steps for cellular respiration?
No longer profitable to continue fishing affected species
What is commercial extinction?
When evolution begins to change. Any violation of the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium results in divergence
What is divergence?
Isolation that occurs before fertilization
What is prezygotic isolation?
Isolation that occurs after fertilization
What is postzygotic isolation?
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