the condition that in order to make an arrest in a misdemeanor, the arresting officer must have personally witnessed the crime being committed
used when a prosecutor decides to drop a case after a complaint has been formally made.
a type of jury responsible for investigating alleged crimes, examining evidence, and issuing indictments.
true bill of indictment
a written statement charging a defendant with the commission of a crime, drawn up by a prosecuting attorney and considered by a grand jury. if the grand jury finds sufficient evidence to support the indictment, it will issue a true bill of indictment.
charging document filed by the prosecution that forms the basis of the preliminary hearing.
probable cause hearing
term used in some jurisdictions for a preliminary hearing to show cause to bring a case to trial.
criminal justice system
the law enforcement, court, and correctional agencies that work together to effect the apprehension, prosecution, and control of criminal offenders.
criminal justice process
the decision making points, from the initial investigation or arrest by police to the eventual release of the offender and his or her reentry into society.
Law enforcement assistance administration
funded by the federal governments safe streets acts, this agency provided technical assistance and hundreds of millions of dollars in aid to local and state justice agencies between 1969 and 1982
the control of an individuals behavior by social and institutional forces in society.
courtroom work group
the phrase used to indicate that all parties in the adversary process work together cooperatively to settle cases with the least amount of effort and conflict.
crime control perspective
a model of criminal justice that emphasizes the control of dangerous offenders and the protection of society. it advocates call for harsh punishments as a deterrent to crime and support availability of the death penalty.
the view that the primary purpose of criminal justice is helping to care for people who cannot manage themselves. crime is an expression of frustration and anger created by social inequality and can be controlled by giving people the means to improve their lifestyle through conventional endeavors.
due process perspective
is a basic constitutional principle based on the concept of an individuals expectations of civil rights and justice and the complementary concept of limitation on governmental power; it is a safe guard against arbitrary and unfair state procedures in judicial or administrative proceedings.
a view of criminal justice that emphasizes the least intrusive treatment possible.
reducing the penalty for a criminal act but not actually legalizing it.
the removal of all criminal penalties from a previously outlawed act.
the policy of removing as many offenders as possible from secure confinement and treating them in the community.
a program that provides non punitive, community based alternatives to more intrusive forms of punishment such as jail or prison.
widening the net of justice
the view that programs designed to divert offenders from the justice system actually enmesh them further in the process by substituting more intrusive treatment programs for less intrusive punishment oriented outcomes.
equal justice perspective
the view that all people should be treated equally before the law.
truth in sentencing laws
a sentencing scheme requiring that offenders serve at least 85 percent of their original sentence before being eligible for parole or other forms of early release.
restorative justice perspective
a view of criminal justice that advocates peaceful solutions and mediation rather than coercive punishments