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Social Psych Exam 2 Review
Terms in this set (293)
Based on research by Becker and his colleagues (2007) about decoding emotions presented by the authors of your text, which person's expression would be the easiest to decode?
amandas expression of happiness
___ information addresses the extent to which the same person responds similarly to different stimuli
The authors of your text present a study by Masuda and his colleagues (2008) that examined cultural differences in social perception. They compared how participants perceived a central character when the surrounding characters in a picture either matched or mismatched the central character's facial expression. What implications does this study have for the idea of analytic and holistic thinking styles?
it implies that holistic thinking leads people to more carefully consider social context
The actor/observer pattern of attributions does not manifest itself when actors explain their own successes. Why?
actors are often motivated to maintain or restore their self-esteem
Harold Kelley's covariation model is one ___ theory presented in your text
When people are distracted, they are more likely to fall prey to the fundamental attribution error. This occurs because internal attributions arise from ___, whereas external attributions arise from ___
automatic processes; controlled process
When a person makes the fundamental attribution error, he or she is most likely to infer that behavior is due to ___
Manaka is from Japan, and just won a gold medal at the Olympics. When interviewed about what she thinks contributed to her success, she is most likely to answer ___
"i've had so much support from my coach and family"
Paul Ekman and Walter Friesen (1971) collected convincing evidence that facial expressions are universal. In their research, they studied ___
a preliterate tribe in an isolated part of new guinea
Based on information from your text about how accurately people decode messages transmitted different ways, if you have an emotionally laden message to convey accurately, which mode of communication is likely to lead to the worst decoding?
One assumption of the covariation model is that people make causal attributions ___
in a rational, logical way
Express is to ___ as interpret is to ___
In a study by Hedden and his colleagues (2008) examining brain activity, East Asians and European Americans underwent an fMRI while focusing on either a target or the context of a picture. In which circumstance did European Americans exert more attention?
when asked to attend to the context
Why is belief in a just world a self-serving belief? We can ___
convince ourselves that we are safe from misfortunes
"Ellen is always crabby and tense, and that's why she's acting so impatient today," Grace remarked. Grace has just used a(n) ___ attribution to explain the cause of Ellen's impatience
Based on information from the authors of your text, who would be more likely to express a feeling of shame publicly?
tran, a man from a collectivist culture
Gina learns from her roommate that Stacey is a snob who thinks that she is better than everyone else. When she sees Stacey in the lunchroom, Stacey is often sitting by herself, has little to say to others, and rarely makes eye contact. Gina sees Stacey as cold and unfriendly, while Stacey sees herself as shy and intimidated by the other students. This discrepancy in interpretation is due to ___
both students demonstrating the actor-observer difference
You're in Hong Kong reading the morning newspaper, and you notice a headline about a double murder that took place overnight. A suspect is in custody. Which of the following headlines is most likely to accompany the story?
"dispute over gambling debt ends in murder
According to Daniel Gilbert, we typically use two steps in making attributions. The first step involves ___, and the second step involves ___
forming an internal attribution; adjusting for the situation
René exhibits the actor/observer difference when she says, ___
"sally is just plain mean, but i'm irritable because i got a bad grade"
Why is it that people do not necessarily make attributions as Kelley's covariation model predicts?
they do not always have the relevant information they need
According to your textbook authors, the popularity of "reality" television is largely due to the fact that we ___
are fascinated with trying to figure other people out so we can better understand our social world
Belief in a just world is best characterized as a form of ___
What kind of attribution do people most often make about others?
Research by Fincham has found that couples who are happy in their marriages make very different attributions for their partners' behaviors than couples who are unhappy. Specifically, couples in happy marriages make ___, while couples in unhappy marriages make ___
external attributions for negative behavior and internal attributions for positive behavior; internal attributions for negative behavior and external for positive
Western (United States) is to ___ as Eastern is to ___. All of the following pairs complete this analogy accurately except
Several researchers have found that rape victims are often seen as causing their rapes, and that battered women are often held responsible for their abuse. These findings best represent ___
belief in a just world
Harry is a child who recently learned that there are consequences when he fulfills the expectations set forth by his parents. Which emotion is Harry most likely to have recently begun experiencing?
Based on the information in your text about research by Becker and his colleagues (2007) on decoding emotions, complete the analogy: men: ___:: ___: happiness
When people make attributions, research has suggested that they rely less on consensus information than the covariation model suggests, and rely more heavily on ___
consistency and distinctiveness
Research by Becker and his colleagues (2007) presented by the authors of your text, found that it was easier for people to decode the emotion of ___ in men
Recall that Scott Roesch and James Amirkham (1997) studied attributions for success and failure in athletes. Based on their findings, which of the following athletes would be most likely to make an external attribution for losing?
john, a tennis player new to the professional circuit
When people ask questions, the pitch of their voices typically goes up at the end of the sentence to signal others that a response is expected. This phenomenon best illustrates the use of nonverbal behavior to ___
facilitate verbal communication
In a study by Lassiter and his colleagues (2007), they found that when judges and police officers viewed tapes
of interrogations, they were more likely to find the confession of a suspect voluntary when the camera
focused only on the suspect. Why?
the perceptual salience of the suspect triggered the correspondence bias
Although Westerners have an expression for a "bohemian" or "artistic type," Chinese do not. This suggests that ___
contents of implicit personality theories are culture specific
According to research conducted by Susskind and his colleagues (2008) presented by the authors of your text, the emotions of ___ and ___ involve opposite facial muscle movements
When people are motivated to reach an accurate judgment, or are suspicious of a person (suspecting lying or ulterior motives for instance), they are more likely to engage in the ___ of the two-step process of attributions
The neurological basis for feeling what others feel, empathy, lies in ___
Rafael has always hated mathematics courses. However, he likes most other courses at the university. Most other students tend to avoid math courses whenever possible, too. Given this information about consistency, distinctiveness, and consensus, most people would make a(n) ___ attribution for Rafael's attitude
Chantelle's family is hosting a Japanese exchange student, Yukiko, at their home for a year. Chantelle notices that Yukiko hides her smile behind her hands. After reading Chapter 4 (Social Perception), Chantelle learns that Yukiko hides her smile because ___
japanese norms discourage japanese women from showing broad smiles
Recall that Shelley Taylor and Susan Fiske (1975) conducted a clever experiment in which a group of participants observed a scripted conversation between two male confederates. Some could see both of the men; others could see the face of only one or the other man. When asked questions about the two
confederates (e.g., who had taken the lead in the conversation), participants who had a clear view of both men thought they were equally influential, whereas those who faced one or the other thought that the man whose face they saw was more influential. These results demonstrated that ___
the salience of perceptual stimuli can explain how the fundamental attribution error occurs
The correspondence bias is also known as the ___
fundamental attribution error
___ attribution is to person to as ___ attribution is to situation
___ information addresses the extent to which the same person responds similarly to different stimuli
Ming is from China; Tyrone is from Canada. Both participate in an experiment in which they take a test, are given feedback and told that they do very well, and then asked to make attributions for their performance. Based on cross-cultural research on the self-serving bias, you would expect that ___
tyrone, but not ming, he will say he succeeded due to his high ability
Professor DeVeaux reads an essay in which a student argues in favor of full nuclear war to resolve the conflict in the Middle East. Initially she thinks, "Whoa, what an extremist!" Then she recalls that the student had been assigned to advocate nuclear war as part of the assignment. Why would Prof. DeVeaux still be likely to view the student as a political extremist? ___
although she adjusted her beliefs, she did not adjust them enough to fully account for the power of the situation
According to the authors of your text, people use social perception in order to figure people out as part of social survival, and also because ___
it is enjoyable, and a form of entertainment
Wan is a Korean student and Jim is an American student. Both take part in an experiment in which they listen to another student read aloud her essay, knowing that this other student's essay was on an assigned position. Then they are asked to indicate what this other student really believes. Before listening to the other student's essay, Jim, but not Wan, had to write an essay in which he was assigned to take a particular side and even given some prepared statements to include in his essay. Based on the results of cross-cultural research on the correspondence bias, you would expect that under these conditions ___
both wan and jim would make the fundamental attribution error
The basic type of information people use about others to form impressions and understand them is ___
Recall that even when participants in an experiment conducted by E. E. Jones and Victor Harris (1967) were told that people were assigned to write an essay sympathetic to Cuban dictator Fidel Castro, they still were willing to assume that the essay reflected the writer's true "pro-Castro" attitudes. In this experiment, how could people have avoided correspondence bias? They could have assumed ___
nothing, and rated the essay writers attitude in the midpoint of the pro-and anti-castro scale
Gestures that have a clear meaning within a culture-but which may not be universally understood-are called ___
___ refers to a facial expression in which one part of the face registers one emotion and another part of the face registers a different emotion
Darwin believed that emotional expressions began as ___ that came to have evolutionary value because they ___
physiological reactions; convey emotional states to other members of the species
Recall that even when participants in an experiment conducted by E. E. Jones and Victor Harris (1967) were told that people were assigned to write an essay sympathetic to Cuban dictator Fidel Castro, they still were willing to assume that the essay reflected the writer's true "pro-Castro" attitudes. These findings illustrate ___
the correspondence bias
When we make inferences about someone's personality based on what we already know about some characteristics, we are using a(n) ___
implicit personality theory
The two factors below that most often explain the divergence of actors' and observers' attributions are ___
perceptual salience effects and differentially available information
If a person has mirror neurons that are damaged or missing, he or she would most likely have trouble ___
Simon laughed long and hard when he saw his mother slip and fall. Neither his sister nor his father laughed when they saw her fall. Simon has seen both his mother and other people fall before, but didn't laugh then. According to Kelley's covariation model, observers privy to this information are likely to assume that ___
there must have been something peculiar about this particular incident that made simon laugh
According to the authors of your text, culture can be considered an all-encompassing, higher-level ___
Kruger and colleagues (2005) conducted a study examining how well people decoded messages transmitted face-to-face, by voice only, or via email. Based on the results of this study, who did better at decoding the emotional statements, regardless of how they were transmitted?
everyone did about the same
Ed and Violet just saw their professor slip and fall. Ed thinks, "What a klutz!", but Violet thinks, "I bet there was water on the floor and she slipped on it." In this case, Ed made an ___ and Violet made an ___
internal attribution; external attribution
The Social Interpretations Task (SIT) is a research tool used by Archer and Akert and discussed in your text. Which is the best description of the SIT?
a videotape of scenes of natural nonverbal behavior that subjects are asked questions about
Paul Ekman and his colleagues have identified ___ universal facial expressions in their research
When distinctiveness is ___, consensus is ___, and consistency is high, people are likely to make an external attribution
According to the authors of your text, how good are people generally at noticing or interpreting "leaked"
it can be difficult
Seeing pictures of physically attractive celebrities and models, many people in the U.S. assume that these people are also intelligent, kind, or wealthy. Such assumptions illustrate the implicit personality theory held widely as a culture that ___
what is beautiful is good
All of the following are among the six universally recognized facial expressions reported by Ekman except ___
In talking to an acquaintance of yours, you note that she never looks you directly in the eye. To figure out whether this is because she is shy, because she dislikes you, or because she comes from a culture that discourages direct eye contact, you would probably ___
make an attribution
In a study by Lassiter and his colleagues (2007), they found that when judges and police officers viewed tapes of interrogations, they were likely to find the confession of a suspect more voluntary when the interrogation camera ___
only showed the suspect
According to research by Markus and his colleagues (2006), American Olympic gold medal winners are more likely to attribute their win to ___ than Japanese gold medal winners
their own unique talents and abilities
Results from cross-cultural studies of impression formation indicate that ___
the language we use influences the implicit personality theories we use and thus the impressions we form
Eva and her roommate haven't been getting along lately. Every time Eva enters the room, her roommate looks away and turns her body so that her back is to Eva. This example best illustrates the use of nonverbal behavior to
Watching a man and a woman at the park, using multi-channel nonverbal clues, how would you know whether or not they are a romantic couple?
all of these
Contemporary researchers have collected evidence that naturalist Charles Darwin (1872) was correct when he asserted that facial expressions are ___
Implicit personality theories are strongly influenced by and tied to ___
Why do the authors of your text refer to the actor/observer difference as "an interesting twist on the fundamental attribution error"?
our perspectives as actors versus observers influence the extent to which we make the fundamental attribution error
The tendency to assume that human behavior is caused by the kind of person who enacts it was labeled as "the fundamental attribution error" because it is ___
On a visit to Australia, then-President George H.W. Bush offended the Australians when he flashed the twofingered "peace sign" to a crowd. This is an example of how the use of ___, which vary from culture to culture, may lead to confusion or conflict if used outside of the user's culture
We make self-serving attributions for all of the following reasons except ___
we are concerned with obtaining accurate feedback about ourselves to use in making future decisions
One reason for the actor/observer difference is that actors have ___ information about themselves than about others
In the book and film Willy Wonka and the Chocolate Factory, greedy Augustus Gloop disappears into the river of chocolate, gum-addicted Violet Beauregard turns into a blueberry when she insists on testing a blueberry-flavored gum that hasn't been perfected yet, selfish Veruca Salt tries to steal a golden egg and falls down a chute, and television-obsessed Mike Teevee shrinks himself while playing with a transmitter. Only Charlie-from the poor but hardworking and loving family-makes it all the way to the tour's end, at which point he returns the everlasting gobstopper to Mr. Wonka, who rewards him by giving him the factory. The events in this story illustrate the ___
belief in a just world
Recall that Curt Hoffman, Ivy Lau, and David Johnson (1986) provided native English speakers and Chinese- English bilinguals with descriptions of people who fit either an "artistic type" or a "shi gú" type. Their findings revealed that ___
bilingual speakers impressions were determined by the language in which they read the story
An implicit personality theory is ___
a schema about which traits tend to co-occur in people
When observers consider the extent to which different people respond in the same way toward a given stimulus, they are using ___ information
The authors of your text report a story of a homeless man who spent his only quarter to find out why a couple (whose love letters he'd read) had broken up. This story demonstrates ___
the idea that people are fascinated with the human condition
William is constantly searching for employment, but has yet to be hired. While William is outside in the unemployment line, a woman yells at him as she drives by, "Get a job, you lazy bum!" Her assumption about William is an example of the ___
fundamental attribution error
When people make the fundamental attribution error, they tend to ___
underestimate the situational constraints on peoples behavior
When people make internal attributions for their successes and external attributions for their failures in order to protect their self-esteem, they are making ___
In honor of Rosa Parks's contribution to the Civil Rights Movement, the seat behind the driver on buses in major cities was reserved for one day, and people were asked not to sit there. Some people did actually sit in this seat. When a reporter asked these "sitters" to explain their behavior, he found that ___
they usually just hadn't seen the sign or hadn't been paying attention
According to the authors of your text, people in ___ cultures tend to have an analytic thinking style
The six major facial expressions discussed in the text are widely considered to be ___
According to the text, the fundamental attribution error is a byproduct of which of the following "shortcuts"?
the anchoring and adjustment heuristic
Students in the United States seldom applaud after a lecture, whereas students in Europe often applaud or rap their knuckles on their desks. This cultural difference reflects the power of ___ to influence nonverbal communication
According to research conducted by Susskind and his colleagues (2008) presented by the authors of your text, the expression of fear involves facial movements which ___
increase sensory output
All of the following except the fact that ___ can interfere with people's ability to decode others' facial expressions
nonverbal behavior is often multichannel
The tendency to infer that people's behavior corresponds to or matches their underlying personality disposition is known as the ___
The authors of your text present a study by Masuda and his colleagues (2008) that examined cultural differences in social perception. They compared how participants perceived a central character when the surrounding characters in a picture either matched or mismatched the central character's facial expression. Which group of participants spent more time looking at people in the periphery?
people from an eastern culture
All we can see is other people's appearance and behavior, but we are most interested in trying to infer from this ___
why people behave the way they do
In trying to make sense of the social world, people are much like amateur scientists. This observation is most compatible with Fritz Heider's (1958) classic scholarly work on ___
common sense psychology
Recall that Curt Hoffman, Ivy Lau, and David Johnson (1986) provided native English speakers and Chinese- English bilinguals with descriptions of people who fit either an "artistic type" or a "shi gú" type. English speakers filled in gaps in the descriptions with inferences about the artistic type, but not about the shi gú type. In contrast, bilinguals who read the descriptions in English filled in blanks for the artistic type, but not the shi gú type, and bilinguals who read the descriptions in Chinese filled in the blanks for the shi gú type, but not the artistic type. These results suggest that ___
language and culture shape our implicit personality theories
Your sister comes in and announces that she has just gotten engaged to the man she has been dating for the past two months. You feel a mix of surprise, happiness, and concern, and this shows on your face. The expression your face displays is known as a(n) ___
When communicating via email, people may add ___ as a substitute for nonverbal cues, in an attempt to clarify their words
The attributional perspective that addresses behaviors that occur over time, place, and different actors and targets is the ___
Based on a study by Lassiter and his colleagues (2007) examining how judges and police officers viewed tapes of interrogations, if you were going to be interrogated by a detective, you would not want the camera pointed ___
at you only
According to the text, the fundamental attribution error is a byproduct of which of the following "shortcuts"?
the anchoring and adjustment heuristic
In a study by Hedden and his colleagues (2008) examining brain activity, East Asians and European Americans underwent an fMRI while focusing on either a target or the context of a picture. When asked to focus on the context of a picture, European Americans' ___ regions of the brain were more active
frontal and parietal
The main idea of the role of perceptual salience in attributions is ___
what we notice is presumed to be the cause of behavior
When we decide that there is something about the situation that is causing a behavior, we are making a(n) ___
Which of the following is the best summary of research on actor/observer differences in attribution?
actors attribute their behavior to situational causes, whereas observers attribute other peoples behavior to dispositional causes
In honor of Rosa Parks's contribution to the Civil Rights Movement, the seat behind the driver on buses in major cities was reserved for one day, and people were asked not to sit there. Some people did actually sit in this seat. Making the assumption that these people were prejudiced or racist is an example of the ___
Joan Miller (1984) studied causal attributions in two different cultures. She found that whereas Indian Hindus ___, participants in the United States ___
made situational attributions; made dispositional attributions
Eva and her roommate haven't been getting along lately. Every time Eva enters the room, her roommate looks away and turns her body so that her back is to Eva. This example best illustrates the use of nonverbal behavior to ___
Sarah, a student at an American university, has just arrived in Bolivia for a study year abroad. When meeting her host parents, she notices that they stand very close to her as they speak. She feels uncomfortable until she realizes that ___
they have different cultural norms concerning the use of space
According to the text, we often fall prey to correspondence bias because ___
the actor's situation is invisible to us, while the actor's behavior is obvious
Recall that a number of researchers have found that participants from Asian cultures are less likely than participants from Western cultures to make the fundamental attribution error. These findings suggest that ___
values and norms can influence cognitive processes
If you use the internet, you are probably familiar with emoticons: facial expressions displayed using a combination of typographic figures, e.g., :-) for a smile. Asian countries have their own set of emoticons; in these (which are viewed without having to turn one's head), there are different smiling facial figures for a man smiling (^_^) and a woman smiling (^ . ^), since in Japan, women are not supposed to exhibit a wide, uninhibited smile. This difference between the men's and women's emoticons in Japan is due to a(n) ___
Professor DeVeaux reads an essay in which a student argues in favor of full nuclear war to resolve the conflict in the Middle East. Initially she thinks, "Whoa, what an extremist!" Then she recalls that the student had been assigned to advocate nuclear war as part of the assignment. Why would Prof. DeVeaux still be likely to view the student as a political extremist?
although she adjusted her beliefs, she did not adjust them enough to fully account for the power of the situation
One reason that actors and observers diverge in their attributions is that actors ___
have more distinctiveness and consistency information than observers have
All of the following are nonverbal behaviors except ___
___ are culture-specific norms that dictate what kinds of emotional expression is allowed
Based on the idea that nonverbal behaviors may be more honest than words, the Transportation Agency implemented a program in which they deployed hundreds of security agents to ___
read concealed emotions on faces of passengers at airports
All of the following are examples of correspondence bias except ___
your boyfriend brings you flowers and you are immediately suspicious about what he must have done that you will be angry about
On your birthday, you arrive home and are overjoyed to find a large bouquet of flowers from your best friend. Your eyes grow wide and a broad smile crosses your face. You laugh in delight. This example best illustrates the use of nonverbal behavior to ___
Explanations for our behavior that help us avoid feelings of vulnerability or mortality are called ___
The authors of your text suggest people from both Eastern and Western cultures share which aspect of the correspondence bias?
both cultures make initial, automatic dispositional attributions
Karen is on the phone when her roommate enters the room. Karen signals to her roommate to be quiet by pointing to the phone, shaking her head, and placing a raised index finger in front of her mouth. This example illustrates the use of nonverbal communication to ___ verbal communication
According to recent research, why does culture influence our tendency to make internal versus external attributions?
cultures vary in the extent to which interdependence and conformity are valued
After losing a Little League softball game between the Rockets and the Tigers, what is the coach of the losing Rockets likely to say?
"boy, those tigers have never played better than they did today"
"Jen's bicycle was stolen yesterday," Jason said, "and that's why she's so cranky today." Jason has just used an ___ to explain the cause of Jen's behavior
The self-serving bias is likely to be the strongest in ___
According to the authors of your text, why do they call email communication an "impoverished medium of communication"?
it relies on words alone
The actor/observer difference is the tendency to see other people's behavior as ___ while making ___ attributions about our own behavior
The authors of your text present a study by Masuda and his colleagues (2008) that examined cultural differences in social perception. They compared how participants perceived a central character when the surrounding characters in a picture either matched or mismatched the central character's facial expression. What concept were they examining in this study?
differences in thinking styles translate into differences in interpreting facial expression
According to the authors of your text, individuals from a(n) ___ culture would be less likely to express feelings of shame in public
The authors of your text present a study by Masuda and his colleagues (2008) that examined cultural differences in social perception. They compared how participants perceived a central character when the surrounding characters in a picture either matched or mismatched the central character's facial expression. When the central and peripheral characters' expressions do not match, Japanese participants were most likely to ___
rate the character more similarly to the peripheral characters
When decoding the Social Interpretations Task (SIT), which clues are key for decoders pay attention to?
cues are diffused; there are several
Research on people's use of the covariation model in making attributions suggests that people are less likely to use ___ information than Kelley's model predicts
Which of the following is a typical example of the actor/observer difference?
terry's roommate forgets to pay the phone bill and blames it on her stress over her romantic breakup, while terry blames it on how irresponsible her roommate is
Mariah has had a hard semester, and her grades have suffered. She really needs a good grade in psychology to get off academic probation and stay in school. On the next psychology exam, Mariah is sorely tempted to cheat, but she decides not to. Which of the following pairs of cognitions best reflects the source of any dissonance Mariah might experience while deciding not to cheat?
"my school life could be over"; "i just gave up a chance to help myself"
In a variation of the "forbidden toy" experiment by Elliot Aronson and J. Merrill Carlsmith (1963), Jonathan Freedman (1965) issued mild and severe threats to prevent children from playing with a very attractive battery-powered robot. Several weeks later, a woman came to the school, allegedly to administer tests to the children. When she left the room to score the tests, children were left alone with the robot and other less attractive toys. Almost 80 percent of the children who were issued severe threats by Freedman played with the robot; only 30 percent of those children issued mild threats succumbed to temptation. This experiment is noteworthy because it demonstrated that ___
attempts to reduce dissonance yield long-lasting attitude and behavior change
In a study by Gilbert and Ebert (2002), students shot a roll of film and printed two photographs. Some were told that they could exchange the one they chose to keep within five days, but others were told that their choice was final. Which group of students liked their photograph best?
those who were not given an exchange period, because the decision was irrevocable
After filing your ballot for an election, you are more convinced than you were before filing the ballot that you voted for the best candidate. This example illustrates the idea that when decisions are ___, individuals engage in a greater amount of dissonance reduction
Two weeks after making a public statement at odds with his previous positions, which politician is most likely to report to his close friends that he sticks by his most recent (contradictory) statement?
a candidate who couldn't quite figure out why he contradicted himself
The authors of your text explain that some commentators believe the Bush administration was trying to deliberately deceive the American people about the nature of their intentions in the conflict in Iraq. However, the authors of your text suggest that it is likely that ___
the members of the bush administration were undergoing cognitive dissonance
According to the principle of insufficient punishment, which of the following parental techniques should be most effective in changing a child's behavior permanently (i.e., even behavior that occurs in the absence of the parent)?
threat of mild punishment
According to Thomas Friedman's cognitive dissonance explanation of the September 11th bombings (presented in your textbook), the events of September 11th occurred because ___
the men see their civilization as superior and yet being treated as inferior by america
Consider the findings from a study by Peterson, Haynes, and Olson (2008) in which smokers were asked to create an anti-smoking video to be shown to high school students, thereby invoking dissonance in the smokers. Based on the findings about which participants were most likely to intend to quit smoking, who do you think would be most likely to reduce dissonance by changing his or her behavior?
tim, who has high self-esteem
According to the authors of your text, what is one way people can begin to learn from their mistakes?
by recognizing the tendency to justify our actions
The new governor hires you to devise a plan to stop bullying in the schools. Based on the principle of insufficient punishment, what might be a good way to punish bullies?
tell teachers to give a mild punishment that barely gets the bully to stop the behavior and to be consistent with this mild punishment
Based on the Ben Franklin effect, you are most likely to increase your liking for Tony when ___
you lend tony $10
Research in which participants' brains were scanned with MRIs while doing a dissonance-producing task showed that when people encounter dissonance, the ___ areas of the brain decrease in activity, and when dissonance is resolved, the ___ areas of the brain "light up."
Jan and Michelle would both like to ride a motorcycle. Jan's parents explicitly prohibit her from riding a motorcycle and tell her that she'll be grounded should she choose to disobey them. Michelle's parents express their concern for her safety and tell her that they would be very disappointed if she decided to take a ride. According to dissonance theory, two months after the warnings, who would be more likely to ride a motorcycle if given the opportunity?
jan would be more likely to decide to ride the motorcycle
In which case is lowballing least likely to work?
tess is lowballed, and although before the lowball she could get the car she wanted for $50 less at the dealer she chose, after the lowball she would save $800 if she backed out of her deal
According to the authors of your text, using ___ rewards or punishments leads to longer lasting attitude change than using ___ rewards or punishments
According to the tenets of dissonance theory, when we cannot find sufficient external justification for acts such as saying something we don't truly believe, we will most likely ___
seek internal justifications
The authors of your text present a study by Egan and his colleagues in which monkeys were given a choice between different colors of M&Ms- later, their preference for different colors of M&Ms was re-assessed. The researchers found that the monkeys ___
reduced their liking for the colors of M&Ms they hadn't chosen
Based on information from the authors of your text about cognitive dissonance and immoral behavior, which of the following people would be most likely to condone having an extramarital affair?
jessie, who cheated on her husband long ago, but didn't get caught
Derek likes to bully his little brother Matt. Their mother begins to give Derek the mild punishment of a stern look every time Derek hits Matt. This is sufficient to stop Derek's bullying, and in time, Derek stops bullying Matt even when his mother is not around. According to theories of insufficient punishment, why might this happen?
because there was insufficient external justification for resisting, derek began to devalue the forbidden activity
The fact that there is research demonstrating that other animals experience dissonance-and that it has a biological basis-suggests that cognitive dissonance may have (in part) a(n) ___ explanation
People are unlikely to change their attitudes after saying something they don't truly believe if there is ___ for the lie
Scott believes very strongly that saccharine is an unsafe sugar substitute that may even cause cancer. Even though Scott is diabetic, and thus should be using sugar substitutes, he often opts for sugar-laden foods and drinks to avoid saccharine. "I'll just exercise more later; the sugar isn't a big deal. I'm really being healthier by avoiding saccharine," he thinks to himself. Scott's behavior and thoughts are examples of ___ in the face of cognitive dissonance
Recall that Jack Brehm (1956) asked women to rate the desirability of a number of appliances and then allowed them to choose one of those appliances as a gift. Twenty minutes later, all women re-rated the same appliances, including the one they chose. Women tended to rate the alternatives they rejected lower than they had originally, and to rate their chosen appliance more positively. These results suggest that people ___
reduce dissonance by overestimating differences between chosen and unchosen alternatives
According to the authors of your text, researchers have found evidence that dissonance reduction is associated with the ___ in the brain
left frontal cortical area
Imagine you really enjoy lying out in the sun to get a deep, dark tan. If you heard arguments both for and against tanning, you would probably remember ___ arguments for tanning, and ___ arguments against tanning
In a study by Peterson, Haynes, and Olson (2008), smokers were asked to create an anti-smoking video to be shown to high school students, invoking dissonance in the smokers. To alleviate this dissonance, participants with ___ were more likely to actually intend to quit smoking
People who had already placed their two-dollar bets were more confident than people who were waiting in line to place their bets (Knox & Inkster, 1968). These findings suggest that decisions that are ___ generate more cognitive dissonance than decisions that are not
Individuals are most likely to reduce cognitive dissonance by ___
adding new cognitions that are consistent with their behavior
A recent MRI study revealed that when participants successfully reduced and resolved their cognitive dissonance, they experienced ___
Imagine that both Vera and Carol are against affirmative action. Vera is offered $50 to write an essay about the benefits of affirmative action, whereas Carol is offered only $1 to write a similar essay. After writing the essays and receiving their payments, both women are asked to report their attitudes toward affirmative action. Assuming that their attitudes were similarly negative at the outset, which of the following results would you expect?
carol would be more favorable than vera toward affirmative action
Recall that Elliot Aronson and his colleagues (1991, 1993) asked college students either to compose a persuasive message advocating the use of condoms or to compose and deliver their message in front of a video camera. In addition, half of the participants in each group were made mindful of the times that they didn't use condoms. Which (fictitious) participant below would experience the most dissonance and express a greater willingness to use condoms in the future?
sally, who delivered her speech, and listened the times she found it hard to use condoms
Recall that Jon Jecker and David Landy (1969) conducted an experiment in which some participants were asked by the experimenter to return monetary compensation to him, while others were asked by the department secretary to return the money to a fund, and still others received no such request for the return of their compensation. Participants who were approached by the experimenter evaluated him better than did participants in the other two experimental conditions. These findings support the notion of ___
the ben franklin effect
As you and your friends returned and met up for the first time since high school, you find that you've all taken different paths in life. Based on cognitive dissonance and the principles of justification of effort, who would be the least satisfied with what he or she is currently doing?
fiona, who is going to a local college with a loose admissions policy, and whose parents are paying her way
Too late, your neighbor discovered that he couldn't flush his toilet. He has asked you to come help him unstop his plugged toilet. It's not a task that you look forward to, but you come over to help. Based on the psychology of insufficient justification, you'd be most likely to change your attitudes about fixing broken plumbing if you helped ___
ben, because he sometimes steals your morning paper
A person who supports gay marriage listens to a televised debate between two politicians on either side of the issue. According to dissonance theory, this person is likely to remember ___
the most plausible arguments in favor of gay marriage and the most implausible arguments against it
Chloe debated for a long time about whether to take a psychology or a sociology course, both of which looked interesting. She finally chose the psychology course. Now, because she is experiencing ___, she raves about the psychology course to her friends
Maria is on a limited budget, and can only afford one compact disk (CD). She really likes two in particular: Frank Sinatra's Greatest Hits and the soundtrack from the musical Wicked. When she gets home and listens to the Frank Sinatra CD, she cannot imagine why she ever considered the Wicked CD. This is because ___
maria was motivated to reduce her post-decision dissonance
In general, the more ___ a decision between alternatives, the ___ post-decision dissonance
"Live fast and die young, that's what I always say," Rosie pronounces, as she stuffs down three more Ding- Dong snack cakes and opens another pint of high-fat ice cream. Rosie knows that her diet is unhealthy and harmful, of course. To reduce her dissonance, Rosie is ___
adding a cognition that is consonant with her problem behavior
Which of the following examples of inconsistencies is likely to generate the most cognitive dissonance and to cause the most upset?
ned, who perceives himself as a good parent, hollers at his son
Recall that participants in an experiment conducted by Elizabeth Nel, Robert Helmreich, and Elliot Aronson (1969) were provided either large or small incentives to advocate the use and legalization of marijuana. Results of their experiment revealed that dissonance and attitude change occurred when ___
incentives were small
If you wanted to make use of the concept of insufficient punishment, how would you discipline your child when she's misbehaving? Give the child a stern look and tell her ___
nothing else if she stops the forbidden behavior
Recall that Jack Brehm (1956) asked women to rate the desirability of a number of appliances, and then allowed them to choose one of those appliances as a gift. Twenty minutes later, all women re-rated the same appliances, including the one they chose. According to his findings, which of the following (fictitious) participants would rate the toaster lower than she had originally?
june, who chose the waffle iron instead
Lisa is a car salesperson. She has just gotten you to agree to a deal on a new car and to write out a check for the down payment. She takes this to her manager and comes back awhile later saying that, because of taxes and fees, the price of the car will actually come out to $600 over what you agreed upon. According to the research on lowballing, which of the following is most likely to occur?
you would decide to buy the car anyway because there is an illusion of irrevocability
When people act contrary to their self-perceptions as reasonable and sensible people, they experience a feeling known as ___
Recall that participants in an experiment conducted by Eddie Harmon-Jones and his colleagues (1996) wrote down false (positive) opinions about a foul-tasting soft drink. After writing down how good it tasted, they then threw the paper away. Compared to a control group, participants who wrote down false opinions later came to believe that the drink actually tasted pretty good. These results are noteworthy because counterattitudinal advocacy yielded attitude change, even ___
when no harm was done
Based on MRI research on people who were experiencing and later resolved cognitive dissonance, what would you expect to happen to Mary, who just reduced her dissonant feelings about visiting the tanning salon by telling herself that she isn't genetically predisposed to skin cancer, so it won't affect her?
she will experience pleasant feelings
When unscrupulous salespeople use lowballing as a means of selling cars, they take advantage of buyers' illusions that their decision to buy a particular car was ___
An anecdote in your text describes a dialogue between a soldier from the Vietnam War and Aronson, who was shocked by this veteran's view of the Vietnamese as "not fully human." What is the reason that Aronson suggests explains why this veteran dehumanized the Vietnamese?
to alleviate his guilt for harming innocent people during the war
The Ben Franklin effect is named for an incident in which Ben Franklin ___
asked a favor of someone who had treated him coldly, and gained an ally
The authors of your text explain that when political leaders get caught up in a cycle of self-justification, it can have particularly dangerous consequences. They suggest that one way to avoid this cycle is for leaders to ___
bring in skilled advisers outside the inner circle
Members of the Heaven's Gate cult, who "knew" there was a spaceship following the Hale-Bopp comet, returned a perfectly good telescope they had purchased because they failed to see the spaceship they knew was there. Such behaviors demonstrate that ___
people will often go to extreme lengths to justify their actions or beliefs
The authors of your text provide the examples of the Vietnam War and the most recent war in Iraq as examples of the dangers of what can happen when political leaders ___
are caught up in a cycle of self-justification
Recall that Elliot Aronson and J. Merrill Carlsmith (1963) told preschoolers that they were not allowed to play with a toy that the children had already rated as more attractive than other toys. Half of the children were threatened with mild punishment if they disobeyed, and the other half with severe punishment. When the experimenter left the room, none of the children played with the forbidden toy. When the experimenter returned and asked the children to rate all the toys again, those children who received ___
mild threats reduced their dissonance by rating the forbidden toy as less attractive than before
The term ___ refers to a practice whereby a salesperson initially accepts a customer's offer, but then claims an error and quotes the customer a higher price
The situations in which people act out their anger while driving is known as ___
When our behaviors are inconsistent with our values or beliefs, we are not likely to experience cognitive dissonance if ___
we can point to external justifications for our behavior
Imagine that you have just moved into a house with four other people. One of your housemates, Tony, doesn't seem to like you all that much. If you were to make use of the Ben Franklin effect, what can you do to increase Tony's liking for you?
ask tony if he could give you a ride to the grocery store
___ is to dissonance-induced attitude change as ___ is to no attitude change
internal justification; external justification
Jacob recently was late to a meeting because of a traffic jam. Later that day, when his wife is late arriving home, Jacob is probably going to be ___ based on the idea of the hypocrisy induction
Why would people be less likely to engage in dissonance-reducing behaviors in a collectivist culture?
because they would be focused on group harmony rather than self-justification
In experiments on counterattitudinal advocacy, people change their attitudes more the lower the external incentives. This finding is inconsistent with the ___ approach to psychology
Why does self-persuasion work better than being lectured by other people to behave in a certain way?
self-persuasion takes place internally and involves convincing yourself of something
When people state publicly an opinion that is at odds with their own private attitudes, they are engaging in ___
According to the authors of your text, what is one major danger of engaging in self-justification strategies?
we can fail to learn from our mistakes
A mother is trying to get her child to behave in the store and to stop running around, yelling, and grabbing things off the shelves. According to cognitive dissonance theory, if she wants to stop the child's behavior immediately for the time being, she should use a ___, but if she wants to more permanently change the behavior she should use a ___
large punishment; small punishment
Carla has just written out a check for $13,999 to pay for her new car. Although the salesperson had initially accepted her check, she is now told that there was a mistake and that the final total should really be $14, 250. Carla writes another check for $251 to cover the difference so that she can drive out with her new car. Carla has just fallen prey to a questionable sales practice called ___
Recall that E. E. Jones and Rika Kohler (1959) exposed people who were strongly in favor of segregation and strongly opposed to segregation to both plausible and silly arguments in favor of both sides of the issue. If those people were responding in a purely rational or logical way, they would be most likely to remember ___
plausible arguments on both sides of the issue
Based on information provided by your text, external justification is to ___ as internal justification is to ___
temporary change; lasting change
Recall that Yale researcher A. R. Cohen (1962) conducted research at a time when the Yale police were very unpopular with the students. He paid some students relatively little and other students relatively more to write an essay that contradicted their true beliefs about the Yale police, with whom the student body had experienced unpleasant run-ins. Results of this experiment were noteworthy because they demonstrated that ___
counterattitudinal advocacy can affect beliefs about things that really matter
If a person goes through a demanding process involving lots of effort and hard work to achieve a goal, what would cognitive dissonance suggest that person will think about the experience afterwards?
"going through all of that effort was worth it"
The Ben Franklin effect would predict that you would most like someone ___, whereas behaviorist theories would predict that you would most like someone ___
you did a favor for; who did a favor for you
According to cognitive dissonance theory, soldiers may reduce their guilt about killing innocent civilians during wartime by ___
dehumanizing their victims
Recall that Jon Jecker and David Landy (1969) conducted an experiment in which some participants were asked by the experimenter to return the monetary compensation they had received as a special favor to him, while others were asked by the department secretary to return the money as a favor to the psychology department, and still others received no such request for the return of their compensation. The researchers found that participants who were approached by the experimenter evaluated him better than did participants in the other two experimental conditions. Why?
doing a favor for someone leads us to justify our own behavior
Rudy thinks that if he ever got kicked off the football team he would be depressed for months, and that his life would lose all meaning. In actuality, his response would probably not be this severe or prolonged. What is Rudy demonstrating?
the impact bias
The researchers Jones and Kohler (1959) exposed people who were strongly in favor of segregation and strongly opposed to segregation to both plausible and silly arguments in favor of both sides of the issue. They found that people tended to best recall ___
rational arguments of their side and silly arguments of the opposite side the best
Which of the following is most true about research on dissonance theory?
people who took a pill that they thought made them aroused did not experience dissonance
In experiments conducted by Leippe and Eisenstadt (1994, 1998), when white participants experienced dissonance after writing essays in favor of doubling scholarship funds for minority students, how did many of them relieve the dissonance?
by showing lower prejudicial attitudes
Suppose that Derek kept bullying his brother, even when his mother gave him the mild punishment of a stern look. Which of the following is most likely to happen, according to dissonance theory?
derek will become even more interested in bullying his brother, in order to justify why he continued to do so even when he was being punished
Assume that in experiments conducted by Elliot Aronson and his colleagues (1991, 1993), Sally was randomly assigned to write and deliver a pro-condom speech to be shown to high school students. She also listed all the times she found it awkward or impossible to use condoms in her sexual encounters. After completing these tasks, Sally reduced her dissonance by reporting a greater willingness to use condoms in her future sexual activities. Why? She ___
felt like a hypocrite, and changed her attitude to reduce the dissonance
Research has revealed that not all inconsistent cognitions are equally upsetting. Those inconsistencies that are most powerful and upsetting involve ___
a threat to one's self-esteem
Phil spent an hour and a half running cables and toying with connections in order to receive cable TV in his room. When he was finished, he got fifty channels, but all of them were kind of fuzzy. His roommate, Jason, arrived home when Phil was done, and they both sat down to watch TV. Which one will enjoy the cable TV the most?
phil, because of effort justification
People generally ___ think they will like to be able to easily change a decision they've made; however, the research on cognitive dissonance suggests that people actually are ___ with their choice when a decision is more permanent
Participants in an experiment conducted by Keith Davis and E. E. Jones (1960) were induced to provide hurtful feedback to another person (actually a confederate, of course). After providing such mean assessments of his performance, participants then evaluated him privately. After providing an unsolicited criticism, these participants' evaluations of the confederate were ___ because the ___
more negative; participants convinced themselves that the victim deserved it
Mahmoud wants his seven-year-old daughter to learn that littering is bad. According to cognitive dissonance theory, how should Mahmoud teach his daughter not to be a litterbug? Mahmoud should ___
give his daughter a stern look whenever she litters
Ying just purchased a rather expensive wristwatch. She had debated for weeks about the merits of two different styles before making her final decision. It's now likely that Ying will ___
emphasize all of the positive aspects of the chosen watch
As Nina lights up her fifteenth cigarette of the day, she glances at the Surgeon General's warning on the package and shrugs, thinking "Eh, cancer is for old people, and not only do I have good genes, the research on cigarettes causing cancer is inconclusive." It is unlikely that Nina will change her behavior and quit smoking unless ___
she gets out of the self-justification cycle
After reducing post-decision dissonance, people are more likely to rate the chosen and unchosen alternatives as ___
being more dissimilar, such that the chosen alternative is much more desirable than the unchosen one
Of the four people presented below, which one would feel the least regret about altering her appearance, based on information in your text about cognitive dissonance?
cheryl, who just got a tattoo
Dissonance theory helps us understand the apparently irrational behavior of cult members, such as those in the Heaven's Gate cult and at Jonestown who committed mass suicide. All of the following except ___ tend to increase dissonance and hence the extreme dissonance-reducing commitment to the cult or cause and the beliefs of the leaders
the negative self-concepts of many people who join cults
When people receive bad news-perhaps that they did not get a dream job they applied and interviewed for-what tends to happen?
people usually put a spin on the news that makes them feel better
Your friend Jamie shows you the gift she bought for her mother's birthday. It's an atrociously ugly fake marble statue of an angel, with the saccharine words "My Mother's an Angel" sloppily lettered on the bottom. Jamie asks you what you think, and because her feelings are easily hurt, to spare her, you say, "It's wonderful! Maybe I'll get one for my mom!" In this case, you ___ experience dissonance because there is ___ justification for your action
will not; sufficient external
Why is it that anecdotes such as that of the Vietnam War veteran who dehumanized the Vietnamese are not sufficient evidence to support the idea that soldiers will dehumanize the enemy?
anecdotes do not provide a controlled setting and test of casual variables
The authors of your text present a study by Egan and his colleagues in which monkeys were given a choice between different colors of M&Ms-later, their preference for different colors of M&Ms was re-assessed. The researchers found that ___
the monkeys showed post-decision dissonance
According to the authors of your text, when the Bush administration received evidence that there were no weapons of mass destruction in Iraq-but after they had already invested troops and money in the war-the administration quickly explained that now the war was focused on ousting Saddam Hussein and liberating the Iraqi people. In essence, the administration may be ___ as a means of reducing dissonance
adding new cognitions
When preschoolers were forbidden to play with a very attractive toy, some received mild threats of punishment, and others received severe threats of punishment should they disobey (Aronson & Carlsmith, 1963). Because they had ___, children in the mild threat condition experienced ___, and changed their rating of the forbidden toy
insufficient external justification; more dissonance
All things being equal, it would generate the most dissonance to decide which of two ___
people to marry
When someone reminds you to be appropriately grateful for the gifts you receive. Were a dissonance theorist to reminds you to be thankful, he or she would be giving you advice on how to ___
avoid cognitive dissonance
Who is more likely to dehumanize the enemy in order to deal with cognitive dissonance they are experiencing?
victor, who threw a grenade into a mosque
People tend to fall subject to the impact bias (and not understand that they will usually successfully reduce cognitive dissonance) because reducing cognitive dissonance is ___
André is not at all familiar with a presidential candidate's stand on the issues or with his proposed policies, but André likes "his" candidate and plans to vote for him anyway. This example illustrates that people's attitudes toward politicians are often ___
Peer pressure is a form of persuasion which generally utilizes ___
People who base their attitudes on ___ are most likely to maintain their new attitudes over time
a logical analysis of the arguments
Recall that in the l930s, when anti-Asian prejudice was commonplace in the United States, Richard LaPiere (1934) had no trouble finding pleasant accommodations for himself and his Chinese traveling companions. Surprised, LaPiere later sent letters to the establishments they visited, asking whether Chinese visitors would be welcome. More than 90 percent of those who responded replied that they definitely would not accommodate Chinese. This study is noteworthy because it suggested that ___
the link between attitudes and behaviors is often tenuous
"Don't bother me with the so-called facts," asserts your Uncle Joe. "If it's good enough for Barack Obama, it's good enough for me." Which of the following statements about your Uncle Joe is most likely true? He will ___
pay less attention to what obama says, and more attention to how he says it
Research that employs split cable market tests involves ___
exposing some consumers to advertisements and others to nothing
Daryl Bem's self-perception theory suggests that we form attitudes about an object based more on our ___ toward that object than our ___ toward that object
behavior; thoughts and feelings
The Yale Attitude Change approach to persuasion emphasizes which of the following three aspects of persuasion?
the source; the nature of the communication; the nature of the audience
___ theory posits that when people feel their freedom threatened, they will work to restore it by performing the threatened behavior
Why would anyone want to use fear in a commercial?
advertisers want to grab the attention of the target audience
Shelly Chaiken (1987) and other proponents of the heuristic-systematic model of persuasion assert that emotions often signal us as to our true attitudes. By this they mean that ___
emotions often inform our "how do i feel about it?" heuristic
When people don't attend carefully to the substance of a persuasive communication, but instead pay attention to irrelevant cues, they are using the ___ route to persuasion
Kenneth believes that Funny-O' s cereal is good because it has no sugar, it contains all of the recommended vitamins and minerals, and it has no artificial flavors. Kenneth's attitude toward Funny-O's is a(n) ___
In a study by Karremans et al (2006), students were presented subliminal images of "Lipton Ice" as well as strings of letters. Later, when offered to choose a drink, participants who were ___ were likely to choose the "Lipton Ice"
Recall that Han and Shavitt showed Americans and Koreans advertisements that stressed either independence or interdependence. They found that ___ were persuaded most by ads that stressed ___
Chloe voted for the first time in the 2008 elections. She was very motivated to understand campaign issues and to make an informed choice at the polls. She read the newspapers and watched the television debates between the candidates. Motivated and informed when she watched the presidential debates between John McCain and Barrack Obama, Chloe was most likely to pay attention to ___
the candidates' disagreements on education issues
Sometimes even when people want to pay attention to a message, they cannot. Which of the following is not something that would prohibit someone from paying attention to a message?
having a high need for cognition
The Yale Attitude Change approach focused on a number of factors that influence the success of a persuasive message. Which of the following best exemplifies source variables as one of those factors?
expert versus novice speakers
A recent meta-analysis of the effectiveness of anti-substance-abuse ads found that the most effective medium for displaying these ads was ___
broadcast (radio and television)
Attitudes are composed of all of the following components except ___
Based on research presented by the authors of your text on advertising and women's body image, why is there a concern about ads which feature extremely thin (even anorexic) women?
they are associated with poor body image
Gerald Lambert invented Listerine as a surgical antiseptic for throat infections, but was able to market it to a wider audience by ___
publicizing the problem of halitosis
In "phone wars" with MCI, Sprint, and other carriers, AT&T has switched from heartwarming ads that show family members sharing love and support via phone ("It's the next best thing to being there.") to ads that focus on long-distance savings. This is most likely because AT&T advertisers have discovered that ___
phone service is viewed by most consumers as a utilitarian product
Across cultures, the kind of stereotype found most consistently in advertising is that ___
women are portrayed as passive and dependent
Your friend wears bell-bottoms constantly, a behavior that offends your sense of style. If you wanted to apply cognitive dissonance theory to get your friend to change her attitude toward bell-bottoms, you should encourage her to give a public speech ___ under conditions of ___ external justification
against bell-bottoms; low
If you are constructing an ad, a basic principle to remember is that you must ___
try to ensure that your audience will pay attention to your ad
According to reactance theory, which of the following persuasion attempts will meet with the least resistance when a parent tries to convince his child to keep her room clean?
"please try to remember to put your toys away when you've finished playing with them"
When people have both the motivation and ability to attend to a persuasive communication, they are more likely to use the ___ route to persuasion
Attitude inoculation is the process of making people immune to persuasion attempts by ___
exposing them to arguments against their position
___ is the process of making people resistant or immune to attempts to change their attitudes by exposing them to small doses of arguments against their position
People tend to evaluate what they see in the world ___
According to the elaboration likelihood model in your textbook, one reason that product placement is so successful as an advertising technique is that ___
when it is used, people dont try to defend themselves against the influence
When we seek to infer our attitudes, one reason that relying on moods or emotions as heuristics can mislead us is that ___
we may not know the true source of our emotions
According to the authors of your text, why are attitudes important?
they determine what we do
An attitude is usually considered to be affectively based because ___
it is linked to values
The authors of your text suggest that when trying to determine our attitude about something, we often rely on the ____ heuristic
"how do i feel about it?"
Why are millions of dollars a year spent on advertising?
because it is assumed that attitude change leads to behavior change
Recall that Howard Leventhal and his colleagues (1967) showed one group of smokers a film depicting the ravages of lung cancer, gave another group of smokers a pamphlet with instructions on how to quit smoking, and exposed a third group to both the film and the pamphlets. People in the last group reduced their smoking significantly more than people in the other two groups because ___
fear was aroused and they were provided a means to reduce that fear
You have observed that there is more litter around signs that say "$500 fine for littering" than around signs that say "Please keep our state clean." What social psychological theory would you use to explain this observation?
Recall that James Pennebaker and Deborah Sanders (1976) placed one of two signs in the bathrooms on a college campus. One was a strong warning ("Do not write on these walls under any circumstances") and the other was a milder admonition ("Please don't write on these walls"). Two weeks later, what were they likely to find in the bathrooms containing the strong warnings?
scrawls that read "says who?" and "what are you going to do about this?"
It can be tricky to use fear-arousing communication properly; a moderate amount can lead people to ___ and too much can lead people to ___
be persuaded through the central route; become defensive
Researchers Brinol & Petty (2003) conducted a study in which participants were presented strong or weak arguments on an issue while they were either shaking their heads or nodding their heads to test the durability of headphones. Someone nodding his or her head would be more persuaded if presented a(n) ___ argument
Tyler nods his head quite often during a speech from a politician. Based on the information from your text about confidence and persuasion, Tyler would be most likely to be most persuaded by ___
a strong argument
According to the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980), the best predictor of riding a roller coaster would be ___
one's intention to ride the roller coaster
Researchers have conducted nearly 300 split cable market tests to assess the effectiveness of advertisements. In these tests, cable viewers are randomly assigned to receive advertisements for new or existing products, and ___
store scanners are used to track their purchasing patterns
The central route to persuasion is to ___ as the peripheral route is to ___
logical arguments; surface characteristics
If you stand in the checkout line of any discount store, you'll see a very odd assortment of items on display: disposable razors, batteries, ballpoint pens, playing cards, trail mix, combination locks, and so on. Retailers call these items "impulse buys," meaning that although people may not come to the store looking for cards, pens, or trail mix, when they see them near the checkout, they'll buy them. An attitude researcher might say that people buy these items because ___
although attitudes toward these items may not be accessible, situational cues will guide spontaneous purchasing behaviors
Fear-arousing persuasive messages are targeted to the ___ basis of attitudes
Communication such as a speech or television advertisement that advocates a particular side of an issue is considered ___
According to the authors, consumers are advised to be less concerned about the presence of subliminal messages in advertising, and more concerned that ads ___
often shape and perpetuate cultural stereotypes
Based on research about the effectiveness of argument strength versus prestige of the source, which of the following is true about the importance of argument strength?
stronger arguments are always more effective than weaker arguments, all other things being equal
Eva's friends and her husband think that it's important that she get a mammogram at her next annual checkup. Eva believes that it will be relatively easy for her to make time in her schedule for that extra procedure. Thus, Eva has every intention of getting a mammogram as part of her annual checkup. This example best reflects the power of ___ and ___, respectively, to influence behavioral intentions and subsequent behaviors
subjective norms; perceived behavioral control
The ___ model of persuasion asserts that attitudes may change because people attend to the merits of an argument, or because they use such cognitive shortcuts as "The faster a person talks, the more she knows about the issue."
Abraham Tesser (1993) suggests-based on studies of twins-that some attitudes are linked to ___
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