8th Grade Review - 1-50
Terms in this set (55)
be able to recognize and evaluate cartoons - used by muckrakers to portray problems in society - even the illiterate could understand the message
the spreading of ideas or beliefs that help a particular cause and hurt an opposing cause by using half truths and famous people
how the geography of a country affects what happens to the country
the belief that your race or culture is superior to all other races and cultures and often is a reason given to explain one's mistreatment of others, for example, the idea of the "white mans burden" in taking over Africa and India
an original document from history that can be studied for clues and situations, lifestyles, etc.
made African-Americans citizens
gave African-Americans the right to vote
to separate the races to keep them apart - in such situations housing schools, restrooms, drinking fountains, etc.
a nickname for a Northern who went South during reconstruction in the hope of getting rich
a farmer that worked on land owned by another person - many freed slaves in the South after the Civil War became sharecroppers
Idea held by Americans during the 1800's that the United States should stretch across the continent from the Atlantic to the Pacific Oceans
a railroad that stretches across a continent - the first U.S. transcontinental railroad was built in 1863 by the Union Pacific & Central Pacific railroads
a law passed in 1862 to encourage people to settle in the West by giving a farmer 160 acres of free land
Free Enterprise System
an economy in which private citizens own businesses
produce large amounts of goods quickly and cheaply
a business that is owned by investors who buy shares of stock
a company that controls all or nearly all the business of an industry
a group of corporations run by a single board or directors - often very powerful, eliminating their competition, and seen as corrupting the government
used by unions to win their demands from employers, such as better working conditions, higher wages, etc.
What do most immigrants have in common, no matter where they are from?
They came to the US for a better life.
the conditions that push people to leave their homelands to permanently settle in a new country, for example, famine or religious persecution
the conditions that attract people to leave their homeland to settle in a new country, for example for freedom of speech or better jobs
a group of people who share a common culture, often associated with groups of immigrants living together in the same sections of a city
Northwestern European immigrants - earlier 1800's
Southern and Eastern Europeans and Asian immigrants - later 1800's
the process of becoming part of another culture, immigrant children often found it easier to adapt to a new culture and customs than did adult immigrants
the belief that the US should accept immigrants and the immigrants should assimilate or adopt the American culture and customs instead of their own cultures and customs
belief that the US has a variety of cultures, each is unique and welcomed
Growth of the Cities
grew fast in the 1800's due to industrialization and the flood of immigrants who took up residence - men came looking for jobs
Purpose of Skyscrapers
they were built due to the lack of space in downtown city areas
refers to all federal jobs (except elected positions and the armed services), one must take an exam, and only those with the highest scores are qualified to get the jobs - helped to stop the spoils system and patronage
practice of rewarding supporters with government jobs - this practice led to corruption & later Congress established the Civil Service commission in 1883 to end this corruption
reporters and journalists who reported on corrupt politicians and other problems in society, for example, Upton Sinclair wrote The Jungle about the gruesome details of the meatpacking industry- Thomas Nast's cartoons ruined Boss Tweed
a person who campaigned for women's right to vote such as Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Carrie Chapman Catt, and Alice Paul
August 1920 - the amendment to the constitution that gave women the right to vote.
a political party formed in 1891 mostly by farmers & members of labor unions who demanded government help with falling farm prices, regulation of railroad rates, and free silver (more money to be put in circulation)
How were Populists & Progressives similar?
Both parties supported reforms in the late 1800's and early 1900's such as an income tax concerned with public interest
T.R. was a Progressive. What did the Progressives want?
They wanted public interest, or the good of the people, to guide government actions
gave Congress the power to impose an income tax
called for the direct election of senators to Congress
sensational style of reporting that began in the late 1800's by Pulitzer and Hearst
the policy by which a powerful country takes control of the economic and political affairs of a weaker country or region - this foreign policy was especially followed from 1870 to 1914
expansion of the Monroe Doctrine by Theodore Roosevelt that claimed America had the right to interfere in Latin America to preserve law & independence
Spanish American War
4 months in 1898 - US became a colonial power and gained territories such as Puerto Rico and the Philippines. Cuba also became an independent nation.
pride in one's nation - many small groups in Europe felt this - was one cause of WWI
building up the military forces to prepare for war - one cause of WWI
the type of fighting in WWI in which both sides dug trenches, which were protected by mines and barbed wire - "no man's land" was in the middle
an agreement to stop fighting - WWI November 12, 1918
Wilson's goals for peace after WWI - Point 14 established the League of Nations
Outcome of the Treaty of Versailles
1. Germany takes full blame for the war 2. Germany had to disarm completely 3. Germany had to pay huge reparations 4.Germany lost its colonies
payments to the winner of a war for the war damages inflicted by the loser during the war
Use of Submarines and Airplanes in WWI
these weapons were new and the technology was tested, perfected, and deadly
the right of national groups to own their own territories and have their own forms of government without interference & control by stronger nations
US Foreign Policy after WWI
1. Senate voted not to accept the Versailles Treaty 2. US not in the League of Nations 3. Many Americans feared communism 4. wanted to remain isolationist