138 terms

RBT Training Vocab

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positive reinforcement
when a behavior is followed immediately by the presentation of a stimulus that increases the future frequency of the behavior occurring in similar circumstances.
automatic positive reinforcement
movements or activities of the body that result in sensations that render the behavior that produced the sensations more likely to occur in the future.
3 criterion for a definition of a behavior
objectivity, clarity, completeness
4 variations of extinction (SEAT)
sensory,escape, attention, tangible
4 functions of behavior
(SEAT) sensory, escape, attention, tangible
motivating operation
type of reinforcement/punishment/ what makes you motivated
extinction
withholding and discontinuing the reinforcement
negative reinforcement
when a behavior is followed immediately by the removal, termination, reduction or postponement of a stimulus that increases the future frequency of the behavior in similar circumstances.
4 schedules of reinforcement
fixed ratio, variable ratio, fixed interval, variable interval
reinforcement
immediately follows a response & increases the future frequency of that type of behavior.
Functional Assessment (FBA)
is an approach to figuring out why your child acts a certain way. It uses a variety of techniques to understand what's behind inappropriate behaviors.
behavior intervention Plan
is a plan that's based on the FBA. A BIP can help to replace problem behaviors with more positive ones.
3 functional assessment methods
Indirect, Direct & Descriptive, Experimental Analysis
7 dimensions of ABA
(BATCAGE) Behavioral, applied, technological, conceptually systematic, analytic, generality, effective
behavior
can be observed and measurable
ABA
applications of behavior laws to change socially significant behavior to a meaningful degree.
ABC of ABA
antecedent, behavior, consequence
reinforcement
always increases behavior
punishment
always decreases behavior
positive
was something added
negative
was something taken away
reinforcement or punishment?
1. what behavior changed
2. did behavior increase/decrease
3. was something added or taken away?
negative reinforcement
it is always to escape/avoid
2 consequences
reinforcement and punishment
3 variables of reinforcer effectiveness
size, immediacy, deprivation
MOs
are events that can alter the effectiveness of some stimulus at a particular moment.
interval schedules
are based on passage of time
ratio schedules
are based on number of responses
intermittent schedule
schedule of reniforcement when only some of the responses are reinforced
extinction bursts
behavior that was once extinct, returns temporarily
variables of reinforcer Effectiveness (DISC)
deprivation, immediacy,size,contingency
SCHEDULES of reinforcement
continuous & intermitten
continuous schedule
learning new behavior
intermittent schedule
maintaining behavior
Ratio schedules
based on number of responses
fixed ratio schedule
always the same
variable ratio schedule
an average (slot machine)
interval schedules
based on a passage of time
topography
form; what the behavior looks like
behavior definitions must be both
observable & measurable
paring
the teacher is paired with reinforcement
if escape behaviors are occurring frequently, it is often due to_______________.
the reinforcement schedule being too thin
proactive approach
using antecedent interventions to prevent problem behaviors.
errorrless teaching
prompting to obtain correct answer
DRA (differential reinforcement of alternative behaviors)
reinforcing an appropriate alternative to the problem behavior & extinguishing the problem behavior thru extinction.
DRI (differential reinforcement of incompatible behaviors)
reinforces a behavior that is incompatible to the problem behavior & puts the target problem on extinction
DRO (differential reinforcement of other behaviors)
reinforcing the absence of the problem behavior for a specific amt of time.
punishment
a stimulus that follows a response that decreases the future probability of that response
positive punishment
the addition of an aversive stimulus following a behavior that decreases that behavior.
overcorrection
behavior reduction procedure in which contingent on the target behavior the individual must engage in a tedious task that is directly related to the problem.
restitution overcorrection
learner is required to repair the situation to its normal state.
positive practice overcorrection
learner is required to practice the correct form of the behavior or a behavior that is incompatible with the problem behavior as a result of the problem behavior
phonemic prompt
small verbal prompt that gets the learner to emit the desired response.
model prompts
imitation training can be used to teach students to take cues from
self modeling video
video of the student engaging in the desired behavior
time delay
fading prompts & transfer the response to SD
discrimination training
requires one response and 2 antecedent conditions.
verbal prompts
the most difficult to fade
when teaching new behavior you should use which type of prompt heirarchy.
most to least
shaping
molding the behavior
3 steps of discrimination training
isolation, distracter, mixed trials
discrete trial
breaking skills down into small steps and teaching one sud skill at a time until mastery
errorless learning
prompting when the target is presented so that student response is correct.
free operant preference assessment
watching what your learner chooses to do when they can play with anything available.
multiple exemplar training
teaching with many different examples of the same item or activity.
1st step in creating a behavioral treatment
define the behavior and select a measurement technique.
operational definition is used for behavior so that
2 independent observer swill agree on occurrances and non occurrances of the behavior
indirect assessment
interviews, rating scales, questions, surveys, etc.
permanent product
behavior produces a result that could be observed even after the behavior has been terminated
direct measurement
behavior consists of observing the behavior and recording it as it occurrs
2 criteria for event recording
behavior must look similar every time & it must have a clear beginning and end
intensity
the magnitude or force involved in the response
duration
used to measure how long a behavior persists
latency
how much time it takes to answer a ? or follow a direction
interval recording
dividing the observation period into equal intervalsthat continuously follow each other.
time sample recording
looking for behavior's occurrence during a specific part of the interval and recording if it is occurring at that precise moment.
momentary time sample recording
often the most convenient form of data collection
graphs
the most common tool for analyzing data
y axis (vertical)
typically represents measurement of behavior
x axis (horizontal)
typically represents some measure of time
line graph
the most common form of graph used in ABA
phase change line
demonstrates a change in conditions on a graph and is represented by a solid vertical line.
phase labels
label the conditions of the graph
the main goal of Act
allow people to carry insurance from one employer to another and protect the privacy and security of medical records and info.
continuous schedule of reinforcement
each occurrence of a response is reinforced
intermitten schedule of reinforcement
some, but not every, occurrence of a response is reinforced.
transfer trial procedure
present the original SD then use a lesser prompt than the first.
transferring across operants
transfer of stimulus control from one operant to another
cold probe
taking data only on the initial trial.
graphing
a visual analysis of the data so decisions can be made based on progress or lack there of.
oral motor imitation
having a child copy an instructor as she opens and closes her mouth
motor imitation
mimicking the movements of a model
verbal imitation
mimicking the vocalizations of a model
gross motor imitation
body movements that can be mimicked
fine motor imitation
more detailed and precise movements targeting fine motor skills.
tact
label
echoic behavior
vocal imitation
mand
request
intraverbal
behavior that is evoked by another's verbal behavior, such as conversation
VERMI
characteristics and variables of reinforcement that are components of the matching law. (value, effort, rate, magnitude,immediacy)
effort
how hard or how much the learner needs to work in order to obtain the reinforcer
once pairing has taken place, the teacher can become a __________ _________
conditioned reinforcer
paring
when the child approaches you instead of avoiding you.
modes of communication
spoken language, sign language, picture exchange, keyboarding, devices with voice out put
automatic reinforcement
when children produce sounds that resemble those produces by their parent, these sounds may function as
stimulus to stimulus pairing
pairing reinforcement with vocalizations so talking alone provides reinforcement
generalization
the transfer of skills over time, to untrained responses, and across different environments.
personal development
do you have opportunities to learn about the things that interest you
self determination
do you have opportunities to act on your own personal goals and aspirations
interpersonal relations
how often do you participate in social activities like having a friend over for a visit or a meal.
social inclusion
do you have opportunities to become a member of community organizations or clubs
rights
how frequently have you voted in recent elections
emotional well being
do you feel safe & secure in your daily environment
physical well being
how often do you exercise or play active games
material well being
do you have personal possessions that are important to you?
natural supports
all a person's relationships, associations and networks
4 rules of incident report writing
write for an audience, account for everyone and everything, be clear complete & chronological, consider the attachments
social behavior
an interaction between 2 individuals
joint attention
teaching the student to respond to bids of another
probe data
discussed as easier to use with social skills
peer attention
functions as a natural consequece of most social behaviors
functions of behavior
attention, tangible, escape, automatic reinforcement
applied
focuses on socially significant behavior
behavioral
uses procedures based on principles of behavior
analytical
emphasizes on analyzing environmental events that relate to behavior
technological
provides specific behavior planning
conceptually systematic
plans are implemented by people in the natural environment
effective
measurement is used to document bahavior change
antecedent interventions
strategies that focus on structuring and modifying the environment and conditions that occur before a behavior so that the behavior is less likely to occur.
stimulus control
when a behavior is emitted more often in the presence of a particular discriminative stimuli or SD than in its absence, it is said to be under
response cost
behavior reduction procedure in which a reinforcing stimulus is removed following the target behavior
Direct measurement
consists of observing the behavior and recording it as it occurs.
event recording
behavior is observed continuously thru out the observation period and each instance of the behavior is recorded immediately as it occurs
frequency recording
one of the most common ways to assess behavioral change. it is used for behaviors that have a clear beginning and a clear end.
interval recording
a direct measurement technique bc it also involves recording behavior as it occurs. consists of dividing the observation period into equal intervals that continuously follow each other.
partial interval recording
involves checking off an interval at any point within the interval. even if occurred only for 1 second. Over exaggeration of an occurring behavior. best used for behaviors you are trying to decrease
whole interval
involves checking off an interval if the behavior occurs thru out the whole interval. (if it occurs for but the last few seconds you would not mark occurrence.) underestimates
the occurring behavior. best used for behaviors you are trying to increase.
receptive language
responding non verbally to the verbal behavior of others