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Lecture 14: Diaphragm an Posterior Abdominal Wall
Terms in this set (21)
What is the diaphragm?
What kind of muscle is this?
A musculotendinous sheet that separates the thoracic and abdominal cavitites.
This is a skeletal muscle and is under voluntary control but is also driven automatically by respiratory reflexes.
Parts of the diaphragm
1. Sternal part (arises from xiphoid process)
2. Costal part (from the internal surfaces of the lower 6 ribs, at the costal margin)
3. Lumbar part (from lumbar vertebrae as low as L3 on the right, and L2 on the left, note that fibers of the right crus encircle the esophageal hiatus.
Descending aorta passes where?
What is the aorta hiatus?
--> what typically uses the same opening?
Passing behind the diaphragm at the junction of the left and right crura.
The aortic hiatus is the gap through which the aorta passes, usually in front of the T12 vertebral body.
The thoracic duct and sometimes the azygos uses this opening.
Where does the esophagus pass through?
What is hiatal hernia?
Passes through a muscular part of the diaphragm, just posterior to the central tendon.
Hiatal hernia is a common affliction of people over 50 years old, it is a herniation of the gastoresphageal junction upward into thoracic cavity. Symptoms included "heartburn",
Inferior Vena cava passes through where?
Attachment of the inferior vena cava?
When is it stretched open?
What does this facilitate?
Through a hole in the central tendon, the vena caval foramen!
Attaches at the walls of the foramen so it is stretched open as the diaphragm contracts during inspiration.
This facilitates blood flow in the inferior vena cava.
What kind of gland is the pancreas? Explain both.
This gland lies in association with what?
Exocrine gland and endocrine
In that it secrets digestive juice into the duodenum, and an endocrine gland in that it produces glucagon and insulin for release into the blood.
Where does the duodenum recieve digestive juices from? Which is formed by what?
Receives digestive juices from the hepatopancreatic duct (which is formed by the common bile duct and main pancreatic ducts)
The kidney consists of ____ and ____, which contains the _______.
Urine drains from each kidney via a collecting system, Which is composed of what? 7-14 ____ callices, 2-3 ____ callices, the ______ and the _____.
Outer cortex, inner medulla which contains the renal pyramids.
major callices, minor callices, renal pelvis and the ureter.
Suprarenal (adrenal) glands consists of an outer cortex which secretes what?
inner medulla secretes what?
Outer cortex secretes steroid hormones
Inner medulla secretes adrenalin and noradrenalin.
Major vessels of abdomen include?
1. Descending aorta
2. Inferior vena cava
Celiac trunk supplies the "foregut" which is? Branches are the?
esophagus, stomach and duodenum
its branches are the:
a. left gastric artery
b. splenic artery
c. common hepatic artery
Superior mesenteric artery supplies "midgut" which is?
small intestine, ascending and transverse colon
Inferior mesenteric artery supplies "hindgut" which is?
descending colon, sigmond colon and rectum
What are the paired arteries?
1. Lumbar arteries (segmental supply to abdominal wall)
2. Renal arteries (arise just inferior to the superior mesenteric arteries)
3. Testicular or ovarian arteries (usually arise just inferior to renal arteries)
What is the largest vein in the body?What does it form a union with(at what level)? And what does it empty into?
Inferior vena cava, forms a union with common iliac vein at the level L5, empties blood into the right atrium.
Most of the gastointestinal system passes through the _____ and liver before entering the inferior vena cava via the (______) vein and _______ vein.
Hepatic and renal veins are huge contributions to the inferior vena cava.
origin: transverse processes and bodies of lumbar vertebrae
Insertion: lesser trochanter of the femur
Innervation: L(1), 2,3
Function: flex the thigh
Psoas minor muscle
origin: vertebral bodies of T12-L1
insertion: pectineal line of pubis
function: flex the pelvis on the vertebral column (aka "posterior pelvic tilt"
origin: iliac fossa
insertion: lesser trochanter by tendon shared with psoas major
innervation: femoral nerve
function: (and typical name)
superior attachment: transverse processes of upper lumbar vertebrae and the 12th rib
inferior attachment: iliac crest and iliolumbar ligament
function: typical name (hip hiker)
1. elevates the iliac crest
2. lateral flexor of vertebral column
3. accessory muscle of ventilation
Review Lumbar Plexus*
Review Lumbar Plexus*
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